Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center

Hokksund, Norway

Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center

Hokksund, Norway
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Stooren O.,Telemark University College | Bratland-Sanda S.,Telemark University College | Haave M.,Telemark University College | Helgerud J.,Telemark University College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: A case study on an elite national cyclist. J Strength Cond Res 26(10): 2705-2711, 2012-The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (Cc), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Totalmonthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO 2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. Cc did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in Cc. These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center | Gruber M.,University of Potsdam | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffer from impaired muscle activation and lower limb strength. Strength training enhances muscle activation and muscle strength, but neural adaptations to strength training remain unexplored in MS patients. The hypothesis was that maximal strength training (MST) using high loads and few repetitions would improve central neural drive and thus strength capacity of MS patients. 14 MS patients staying at a national MS rehabilitation center were randomly assigned to a MST group or a control group (CG). Both groups received "today's treatment". In addition, the MST group trained 4 × 4 repetitions of unilateral dynamic leg press and plantar flexion 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Neural adaptations of the soleus muscle were assessed by surface electromyography (EMG) activity, and by superimposed H-reflexes and V-waves obtained during maximum voluntary isometric plantar flexor contractions (MVCs). H-reflexes and V-waves were normalized by the M-wave (H SUP/M SUP, V/M SUP, respectively). In the MST group, MVC increased by 20 ± 9% (P < 0.05). Soleus EMG activity and V/M SUP ratio increased by 40 and 55%, respectively, in the MST group compared to the CG (P ≤ 0.05). The H SUP/M SUP ratio remained unchanged. No change was apparent in the CG. MST group subjects were able to complete all training sessions. No adverse effects were reported. This randomized study provides evidence that MST is effective of augmenting the magnitude of efferent motor output of spinal motor neurons in MS patients, alleviating some neuromuscular symptoms linked to the disease. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center | Helgerud J.,Telemark University College | Rodas G.,Medical Services F.C. Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

We aimed to improve the physical capacity of a top-level elite football team during its pre-season by implementing a maximal strength and high-intensity endurance training program. 21 first league elite football players (2031yrs, height 171194cm, mass 58.888.1kg) having recently participated in the UEFA Champions League, took part in the study. Aerobic interval-training at 9095% of maximal heart rate and half-squats strength training with maximum loads in 4 repetitions4 sets were performed concurrently twice a week for 8 weeks. The players were not familiar with maximal strength training as part of their regular program. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) increased 8.6% (1.716.6) (p<0.001), from 60.5 (51.767.1) to 65.7 (58.074.5) mL kg 1 min1 whereas half-squat one repetition maximum increased 51.7% (13.3135.3) (p<0.001), from 116 (85150) to 176 (160210) kg. The 10-m sprint time also improved by 0.06s (0.020.16) (p<0.001); while counter movement jump improved 3.0cm (0.16.2) (p<0.001), following the training program. The concurrent strength and endurance training program together with regular football training resulted in considerable improvement of the players physical capacity and so may be successfully introduced to elite football players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.


Barrett-O'keefe Z.,University of Utah | Barrett-O'keefe Z.,Geriatric Research | Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Maximal strength training (MST) reduces pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) at a given submaximal exercise work rate (i.e., efficiency). However, whether the increase in efficiency originates in the trained skeletal muscle, and therefore the impact of this adaptation on muscle blood flow and arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff), is unknown. Thus five trained subjects partook in an 8-wk MST intervention consisting of half-squats with an emphasis on the rate of force development during the concentric phase of the movement. Pre- and posttraining measurements of pulmonary V̇O2 (indirect calorimetry), single-leg blood flow (thermodilution), and single-leg a-vO2diff (blood gases) were performed, to allow the assessment of skeletal muscle V̇O2 during submaximal cycling [237 ± 23 W; ∼60% of their peak pulmonary V̇O2 (V̇O2peak)]. Pulmonary V̇O 2peak (∼4.05 l/min) and peak work rate (∼355 W), assessed during a graded exercise test, were unaffected by MST. As expected, following MST there was a significant reduction in pulmonary V̇O2 during steady-state submaximal cycling (∼237 W: 3.2±0.1 to 2.9±0.1 l/min). This was accompanied by a significant reduction in single-leg V̇O2 (1,101±105 to 935±93 ml/min) and single-leg blood flow (6,670 ± 700 to 5,649 ± 641 ml/min), but no change in single-leg a-vO2diff (16.7 ± 0.8 to 16.8 ±0.4 ml/dl). These data confirm an MSTinduced reduction in pulmonary V̇O2 during submaximal exercise and identify that this change in efficiency originates solely in skeletal muscle, reducing muscle blood flow, but not altering muscle a-vO2diff. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Wang E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Naess M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Hoff J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Albert T.L.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Age | Year: 2014

Although aging is typically associated with a decline in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), young and old subjects, of similar initial muscle metabolic capacity, increased quadriceps VO2max equally when this small muscle mass was trained in isolation. As it is unclear if this preserved exercise-induced plasticity with age is still evident with centrally challenging whole body exercise, we assessed maximal exercise responses in 13 young (24∈±∈2 years) and 13 old (60∈±∈3 years) males, matched for cycling VO2max (3.82∈±∈0.66 and 3.69∈±∈0.30 L min-1, respectively), both before and after 8 weeks of high aerobic intensity cycle exercise training. As a consequence of the training both young and old significantly improved VO 2max (13∈±∈6 vs. 6∈±∈7 %) and maximal power output (20∈±∈6 vs. 10∈±∈6 %, respectively) from baseline, however, the young exhibited a significantly larger increase than the old. Similarly, independently assessed maximal cardiac output (Q max) tended to increase more in the young (16∈±∈ 14 %) than in the old (11∈±∈12 %), with no change in a-vO 2 difference in either group. Further examination of the components of Q max provided additional evidence of reduced exercise-induced plasticity in both maximal heart rate (young -3 %, old 0 %) and stroke volume (young 19∈±∈15, old 11∈±∈11 %) in the old. In combination, these findings imply that limited central cardiovascular plasticity may be responsible, at least in part, for the attenuated response to whole body exercise training with increasing age. © 2013 American Aging Association.


Brurok B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Karlsen T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Leivseth G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-intensity interval training during combined arm cycling exercise (ACE) and functional electrical stimulation leg cycling (hybrid exercise), on peak stroke volume and peak oxygen consumption in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: A baseline control trial at an outpatient SCI clinic (St. Olav's University Hospital, Norway) was conducted. Participants included six men with SCI in stable neurologic recovery (ASIA Impairment Scale grade A). The study intervention included aerobic high-intensity hybrid exercise training three times a week for 8 wks preceded by a 7-wk control period of regular daily activity. Main outcome measures were peak stroke volume during hybrid cycling and peak oxygen consumption during hybrid cycling, ACE, and functional electrical stimulation leg cycling. The tests were conducted at three time points: 1, baseline; 2, control; and 3, post-training. Results: Data are presented as mean (SD). From control to post-training tests, a significant increase in peak stroke volume by 33% (P = 0.004), from 77.7 (9.9) to 103.4 (17.1) ml/beat, was found. Furthermore, between control and post-training tests, hybrid peak oxygen consumption increased by 24.4%, from 24.6 (3.9) to 30.6 (5.2) ml kg min (P = 0.003), and peak oxygen consumption during isolated ACE and functional electrical stimulation cycling increased by 25.9% (P = 0.001) and 23.5% (P = 0.007), respectively. Conclusions: Training aerobic high-intensity hybrid intervals at 85%-95% of peak Watt was feasible for this group of SCI men and significantly increased peak stroke volume and peak oxygen uptake. Because aerobic capacity is directly linked to mortality and morbidity, the present study may be useful for designing training programs sufficient to reverse the risk of cardiovascular disease in SCI. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center | Helgerud J.,Telemark University College | Storen O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

The present study investigated whether there are differences in running economy at different velocities for well-trained distance runners, and to what extent a commonly used incremental protocol for measuring oxygen uptake (VO 2) at different velocities affects the reliability of these measurements. Fifteen well-trained distance runners (9 male and 6 female) participated in this study. Gross oxygen cost of running (C R), heart rate (HR) and [La-]b during 5-min runs at velocities ranging from 8.0 to 17 km h-1, representing intensities ranging from 60 to 90% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured on two different days in random order. The athletes were also tested for lactate threshold, VO2max and time to exhaustion at MAS (tMAS). No significant differences in C R between the different relative velocities or the different set velocities were found up to 90% of VO 2max. The incremental protocol for measuring VO2 at different velocities was found not to affect the reliability of these measurements. All athletes reached their VO2max whilst running to exhaustion at MAS. The females showed significantly lower VO2max, but significantly better C R than the males. At velocities representing intensities between 60 and 90% of VO2max, no differences in C R were found. The commonly used incremental protocol for measuring oxygen uptake (VO2) at different velocities was found not to affect the reliability of these measurements. This means that C R measured at sub-maximal velocities are representative for C R at race velocity for distances above 10,000 m for most runners. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Oyvind S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Oyvind S.,Telemark University College | Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center | Hoff J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Støren, ø, Helgerud, J, and Hoff, J. Running stride peak forces inversely determines running economy in elite runners. J Strength Cond Res 25(1): 117-123, 2011-The present study investigated the relationship between running economy (RE) at 15 km/h-1, 3.000-m race time, maximal strength, and a number of physiological, anthropometrical, and mechanical variables. The variables measured included RE, maximal oxygen consumption, heart rate, step length and frequency, contact time, and the peak horizontal and vertical forces of each step. Maximal strength was measured as the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) half-squat using a leg press machine. Eleven male elite endurance athletes with a V̇O2max of 75.8 ± 6.2 mL/kg-1/ min-1 participated in this study. After the anthropometric data were collected, they were tested for RE, running characteristics, and force measures on a level treadmill at 15 km/h-1. The athletes wore contact soles, and the treadmill was placed on a force platform. Maximal oxygen consumption and 1RM were tested after the RE measurements. The sum of horizontal and vertical peak forces revealed a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05) both with 3,000-m performance (R = 0.71) and RE (R = 0.66). Inverse correlations were also found (p < 0.05) between RE and body height (R = 0.61) and between RE and body fat percentage (R = 0.62). In conclusion, the sum of horizontal and vertical peak forces was found to be negatively correlated to running economy and 3,000-m running performance, indicating that avoiding vertical movements and high horizontal braking force is crucial for a positive development of RE. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Heggelund J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Helgerud J.,Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation Center | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

This study compared maximal strength training (MST) with equal training volume (kg × sets × repetitions) of conventional strength training (CON) primarily with regard to work economy, and second one repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) of single leg knee extension. In an intra-individual design, one leg was randomized to knee-extension MST (4 or 5RM) and the other leg to CON (3 × 10RM) three times per week for 8 weeks. MST was performed with maximal concentric mobilization of force while CON was performed with moderate velocity. Eight untrained or moderately trained men (26 ± 1 years) completed the study. The improvement in gross work economy was -0.10 ± 0.08 L min-1 larger after MST (P = 0.011, between groups). From pre- to post-test the MST and CON improved net work economy with 31 % (P < 0.001) and 18 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Compared with CON, the improvement in 1RM and dynamic RFD was 13.7 ± 8.4 kg (P = 0.002) and 587 ± 679 N s-1 (P = 0.044) larger after MST, whereas isometric RFD was of borderline significance 3,028 ± 3,674 N s-1 (P = 0.053). From pre- to post-test, MST improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 50 % (P < 0.001) and 155 % (P < 0.001), respectively whereas CON improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 35 % (P < 0.001) and 83 % (P = 0.028), respectively. Anthropometric measures of quadriceps femoris muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake did not change. In conclusion, 8 weeks of MST was more effective than CON for improving work economy, 1RM and RFD in untrained and moderately trained men. The advantageous effect of MST to improve work economy could be due to larger improvements in 1RM and RFD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Heggelund J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Nilsberg G.E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Hoff J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Morken G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High aerobic intensity training (HIT) improve peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), net mechanical efficiency of walking and risk factors for CVD but has not been investigated in patients with schizophrenia. Aims: To investigate effects from HIT on VO2peak, net mechanical efficiency of walking and risk factors for CVD in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: 25 inpatients (F2029, ICD-10) were allocated to either HIT or playing computer games (CG), 3 days per week for 8 weeks. HIT consisted of 4 × - 4-min intervals with 3-min break periods, at 8595% and 70% of peak heart rate, respectively. Results: 12 and seven patients completed HIT and CG, respectively. The baseline VO2peak in both groups combined (n = 19) was 36.8 ± 8.2 ml/kg/min and 3.12 ± 0.55 l/min. The HIT group improved VO2peak by 12% from 3.17 ± 0.59 to 3.56 ± 0.68 l/min (P < 0.001), more than the CG group (P = 0.014). Net mechanical efficiency of walking improved by 12% in the HIT group from 19.8 ± 3.0% to 22.2 ± 4.5% (P = 0.005), more than the CG group (P = 0.031). The psychiatric symptoms, expressed as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), did not improve in either group. Conclusions: VO2peak and net mechanical efficiency of walking improved significantly by 8 weeks of HIT. HIT should be included in rehabilitation in order to improve physical capacity and contribute risk reduction of CVD. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.

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