Hokkaido University of Education

Kita-ku, Japan

Hokkaido University of Education is national, public university, administered by the government of Japan. It has five campuses in Hokkaido, Japan. The main campus is located on the outskirts of Sapporo, the capital of Hokkaido. Hokkaido University of Education, Sapporo is the largest campus, but still only has a little over 1000 students. Other campuses are located in Asahikawa, Kushiro, Hakodate, and Iwamizawa. HUE is primarily dedicated to training teachers, and each of the campuses have associated public schools where students may practice teaching. Wikipedia.

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Atallah J.,University of California at Davis | Watabe H.,Hokkaido University of Education | Kopp A.,University of California at Davis
Evolution and Development | Year: 2012

On macroevolutionary time scales, the same genes can regulate the development of homologous structures through strikingly different cellular processes. Comparing the development of similar morphological traits in closely related species may help elucidate the evolutionary dissociation between pattern formation and morphogenesis. We address this question by focusing on the interspecific differences in sex comb development in Drosophilids. The sex comb is a recently evolved, male-specific structure composed of modified bristles. Previous work in the obscura and melanogaster species groups (Old World Sophophora) has identified two distinct cellular mechanisms that give rise to nearly identical adult morphologies. Here, we describe sex comb development in a species from a more distantly related lineage, the genus Lordiphosa. Although the expression of key regulatory genes is largely conserved in both clades, the cell behaviors responsible for sex comb formation show major differences between Old World Sophophora and Lordiphosa. We suggest that the many-to-one mapping between development and adult phenotype increases the potential for evolutionary innovations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Morita N.,Hokkaido University of Education | Okita K.,Hokusho University | Okita K.,Sapporo Health Sports Foundation
Circulation Journal | Year: 2013

Background: This study compared older men and women with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in terms of the effects of a 6-month exercise intervention on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, blood pressure (BP) and other risk factors. Methods and Results: Sixty older (age 61-79) overweight men and 71 such women with 2 or more risk factors (ie, systolic BP 130-179 mmHg, non-fasting blood glucose 110-139 mg/dl, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 120-219 mg/dl) participated in a 6-month exercise intervention. The exercise program consisted of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise for ~40 min, performed on average 2.5 times per week. Systolic and diastolic BP reductions were found to be greater in women than in men (SBP, -10.6 vs. -5.5 mmHg; DBP, -6.2 vs. -3.3 mmHg; both P<0.05). Decreases in body mass index were larger in women than in men (P<0.05). There was no significant gender difference in the changes in blood glucose and lipid profiles and hsCRP levels. After adjustment for confounders (exercise frequency, weight loss, age, and baseline values), there were still significant gender differences in the SBP and DBP reductions. hsCRP reduction were similar in both genders even after adjusting for weight loss. Conclusions: There could be gender differences in the beneficial effects of exercise training on the potent CV risk factors of BP and body weight, but not on hsCRP.

Nojima T.,Tohoku University | Kimura K.-i.,Hokkaido University of Education | Koganezawa M.,Tohoku University | Yamamoto D.,Tohoku University
Current Biology | Year: 2010

Synapses mediate inductive interactions for the proper development of pre- and postsynaptic cells: presynaptic electrical activities and synaptic transmission ensure the organization of postsynaptic structures, whereas neurotrophins produced in postsynaptic cells support the survival and enlargement of presynaptic partners [1]. In Drosophila, a motor nerve has been implicated in the induction of the muscle of Lawrence (MOL) [2-4], the formation of which is male specific and depends on the neural expression of fruitless (fru) [5, 6], a neural sex-determinant gene [7, 8]. Here we report the identification of a single motoneuron essential for inducing the MOL, which we call the MOL-inducing (Mind) motoneuron. The MOL is restored in fru mutant males, which otherwise lack the MOL, if the fru+ transgene is selectively expressed in the Mind motoneuron by mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker [9]. We further demonstrate that synaptic outputs from the Mind motoneuron are indispensable to MOL induction, because the blockage of synaptic transmission by shibirets (shits) during the critical period in development abolished the MOL formation in males. Our finding that sex-specific neurons instruct sexually dimorphic development of their innervating targets through synaptic interactions points to the novel mechanism whereby the pre- and postsynaptic partners coordinately establish their sexual identity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Iba Y.,Hokkaido University of Education | Sano S.-I.,Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum | Mutterlose J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Kondo Y.,Kochi University
Geology | Year: 2012

Belemnites (order Belemnitida), a very successful group of Mesozoic cephalopods, provide an important clue for understanding Mesozoic marine ecosystems and the origin of modern cephalopods. Following current hypotheses, belemnites originated in the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian, 201.6-197 Ma) with very small forms. According to this view their paleobiogeographic distribution was restricted to northern Europe until the Pliensbachian (190-183 Ma). The fossil record is, however, biased by the fact that all the previous studies on belemnites focused on Europe. Here we report two belemnite taxa from the Hettangian of Japan: a new species of the Sinobelemnitidae and a large taxon of the suborder Belemnitina. The Sinobelemnitidae, which may be included in the future in a new suborder, have also been recorded from the Triassic of China, specimens so far poorly understood. The presence of a very large rostrum attributed to the Belemnitina suggests in addition that a diverse belemnite fauna evolved earlier than previously thought. Our new fi ndings therefore (1) extend the origin of the belemnites back by ~33 m.y. into the Triassic, (2) suggest that this group did not necessarily originate in northern Europe, and (3) imply that belemnites survived the Triassic-Jurassic extinction, one of the fi ve big mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic. Since belemnites provided a considerable amount of food as prey, the origination of belemnites is probably an important event also for the evolution of their predators, such as marine reptiles and sharks. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

Kito N.,Hokkaido University of Education | Ohkuro Y.,879 A203
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

A high-resolution (decade time-resolution) analysis of pollen from Ayameshitsugen Mire (750. m a.s.l.), Hokkaido, Japan, focused on vegetation response to climate change during the last glacial-interglacial transition. The succession analyzed covers the 14,050-8450. cal. BP interval. Pollen records indicate that the area around the study site was occupied by boreal Betula-Picea-Abies forest during the late glacial period. Picea began to decrease at 11,600. cal. BP and disappeared at 11,000. cal. BP. Temperate forest elements began to increase about 100 years after the beginning of the decrease in Picea. Changing pollen assemblages over the early Holocene 11,600-8450. cal. BP interval indicate that vegetation has not been in equilibrium with climate since the onset of Holocene conditions. Higher abundance of Ulmus and Juglans than at present characterizes early Holocene vegetation. A distinct cooling event coinciding with the Younger Dryas stade in the region only occurred 12,700-12,450. cal. BP. The stade was less pronounced than in the North Atlantic region, and a gradual increase in Picea and Betula during the stade indicates gradual climatic amelioration in the region. Mire vegetation did not show a simultaneous response to the onset of Holocene warming. © 2011.

Kimura K.-I.,Hokkaido University of Education
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2011

Currently, sex differences in behavior are believed to result from sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the central nervous system (CNS). Drosophila melanogaster is a common model organism for studying the relationship between brain structure, behavior, and genes. Recent studies of sex-specific reproductive behaviors in D. melanogaster have addressed the contribution of sexual differences in the CNS to the control of sex-specific behaviors and the development of sexual dimorphism. For example, sexually dimorphic regions of the CNS are involved in the initiation of male courtship behavior, the generation of the courtship song, and the induction of male-specific muscles in D. melanogaster. In this review, I discuss recent findings about the contribution of cell death to the formation of sexually dimorphic neural circuitry and the regulation of sex-specific cell death by two sex determination factors, Fruitless and Doublesex, in Drosophila. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

Yamamori T.,Hokkaido University | Yasui H.,Hokkaido University | Yamazumi M.,Hokkaido University | Wada Y.,Hokkaido University | And 3 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that Ir-induced G2/M arrest contributed to the increase in the mitochondrial ROS level by accumulating cells in the G2/M phase. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Bradshaw R.H.W.,University of Liverpool | Kito N.,Hokkaido University of Education | Giesecke T.,University of Gottingen
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

The Holocene histories of three species of Fagus with related autecologies (F. sylvatica, F. grandifolia and F. crenata) are reviewed to compare factors that have affected the long-term dynamics of the species distributions. There are similar climatic controls exerted on all three species and their spreading histories were strongly influenced by the location of glacial refugia and the apparent establishment of outlying founder populations early in the Holocene. Under ideal growth conditions all three species showed similar population doubling rates, with estimated spreading rates of less than 100 m per year. Stand-scale disturbance is shown to have facilitated the spread of F. sylvatica at its northern distribution limits. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tomita Y.,Hokkaido University of Education
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2014

Atomization of a jet produced by the interaction of 1 MHz focused ultrasound with a water surface was investigated using high-speed photography. Viewing various aspects of jet behavior, threshold conditions were obtained necessary for water surface elevation and jet breakup, including drop separation and spray formation. In addition, the position of drop atomization, where a single drop separates from the tip of a jet without spraying, showed good correlation with the jet Weber number. For a set of specified conditions, multiple beaded water masses were formed, moving upwards to produce a vigorous jet. Cavitation phenomena occurred near the center of the primary drop-shaped water mass produced at the leading part of the jet; this was accompanied by fine droplets at the neck between the primary and secondary drop-shaped water masses, due to the collapse of capillary waves. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

Matsuhashi H.,Hokkaido University of Education | Fujita T.,Hokkaido University of Education
Catalysis Today | Year: 2011

Solid base catalysts composed of CaO covered with 5-20 mol% of Al 2O3 were prepared by decomposition of Al(OCH(CH 3)2)3 over an Ca(OH)2 surface in an ethyl acetate solution, followed by thermal decomposition in air at 773-1023 K. The catalysts containing Al3+ and treated at 773-973 K showed sufficient activity for a retro-aldol reaction to convert diacetone alcohol (4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone) into acetone at 299 K. The dissolution of the active component of CaO into a polar solvent was strongly inhibited by a covering of a small amount of Al2O3. The prepared catalysts showed excellent tolerance to H2O contained in the substrate. The catalyst reusability was also examined. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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