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Misawa T.,Hokkaido Research Organization | Kuninaga S.,Health Sciences University of Hokkaido
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Delayed sprouting and white rot of leaf tips were found on Chinese chives in a greenhouse in Hokkaido, Japan, in the spring of 2006 and 2007. The causal fungus was identified as Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-2-1 and discriminated from the leaf rot pathogen R. solani AG-4 HG-I in terms of pathogenicity. Symptoms and the time of year that the disease occurs also apparently differ for the two pathogens. This is the first report of white leaf rot on Chinese chive caused by R. solani AG-2-1. © 2013 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Hirai D.,Hokkaido Research Organization
Cryo-Letters | Year: 2011

The droplet vitrification method was improved for maneuverability by embedding shoot tips in gelled droplets before osmoprotection. This newly modified cryopreserving method gelled droplet vitrification - was compared with other PVS2-based cryopreservation methods using potato shoot tips. Survival rates of each cryogenic procedure held at 25°C were about 40% by cryotube-vitrification procedures (vitrification and encapsulation vitrification methods) and about 70% by PVS2-droplet procedures (droplet vitrification and gelled droplet vitrification methods). Much higher cooling rates of PVS2-droplet procedures than cryotube-vitrification procedures increased their survival rates. The gelled droplet vitrification method was applied to shoot tips of 26 potato cultivars and six wild potatoes. After a little modifications of the conditions for preculture, osmoprotection and dehydration, all cultivars and wild potatoes produced high enough survival rates to be of value to genebanks and all surviving shoot tips developed normal shoots within 3 weeks. © CryoLetters.


Misawa T.,Hokkaido Research Organization | Toda T.,Akita Prefectural University
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Black scurf on carrot roots was found in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2010. An isolate of a binucleate Rhizoctonia was obtained from sclerotia on the root surface. This isolate was identified as anastomosis group (AG)-U based on cultural characteristics, hyphal fusions and the sequence of ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer region. The AG-U isolate caused black scurf symptoms on carrot roots in an inoculation test. The reference isolate of Rhizoctoniasolani AG-2-2 IV, which causes carrot root rot, a disease with symptoms that differ from the black scurf symptom. This is the first report of carrot black scurf caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-U. © 2012 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Hirata D.,Hokkaido University | Mano T.,Hokkaido Research Organization | Abramov A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Baryshnikov G.F.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

To further elucidate the migration history of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of 35 brown bears from Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands (Etorofu and Kunashiri), Sakhalin Island, and the Eurasian Continent (continental Russia, Bulgaria, and Tibet), and those of four polar bears. Based on these sequences, we reconstructed the maternal phylogeny of the brown bear and estimated divergence times to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia. Our gene tree showed the mtDNA haplotypes of all 73 brown and polar bears to be divided into eight divergent lineages. The brown bear on Hokkaido was divided into three lineages (central, eastern, and southern). The Sakhalin brown bear grouped with eastern European and western Alaskan brown bears. Etorofu and Kunashiri brown bears were closely related to eastern Hokkaido brown bears and could have diverged from the eastern Hokkaido lineage after formation of the channel between Hokkaido and the southern Kuril Islands. Tibetan brown bears diverged early in the eastern lineage. Southern Hokkaido brown bears were closely related to North American brown bears. © 2013 The Author.


Okada T.,University of Fukui | Inano H.,Hokkaido University | Hiroyoshi N.,Hokkaido Research Organization
Journal of the Society for Information Display | Year: 2012

Reductive melting treatment has been reported to be an effective method to recover lead from funnel glass in used cathode ray tubes, but a small amount of lead, a potential contaminant, remains in the treated glass. This paper applied a combination process of reductive and oxidative melting to the funnel glass to recover and immobilize lead in the glass. The funnel glass was melted in a lab-scale reactor changing the atmosphere, and the effects of the temperature and the Na 23 dosage on the efficiencies of the lead recovery and immobilization were investigated. In the reductive melting, the lead recovery was promoted by increasing the Na 23 dosage, however the lead extraction from the glass into water and hydrochloric acid was increased. Although the content of lead in the glass after the reductive melting was low, the lead extraction into water and the acid was larger than 0.01 mg-Pb/L-water and 150 mg-Pb/kg-glass, respectively (Japanese environmental criteria). The lead extraction was decreased by the oxidative melting with SiO 2, Al 2O 3, MgO, and NaNO 3. In the proposed method, metallic lead was recovered from the funnel glass with high lead recovery, and the lead remaining in the glass was immobilized to meet the Japanese environmental criteria. © Copyright 2012 Society for Information Display.

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