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Hasegawa K.,Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2016

Interspecific interactions play a key role in determining species assemblages when nonnative species are introduced. In the Chitose River system, Hokkaido, northern Japan, nonnative brown trout Salmo trutta may have replaced nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss due to interspecific competition. The outcome of this competition is predicted to be influenced by the density of both species. Then, I conducted an enclosure experiment to test whether density-dependent interspecific competition between YOY (young-of-the-year) of these species may have explained the species replacement. Rainbow trout decreased their stomach contents in the high density treatment sympatry with brown trout, and growth rate of rainbow trout decreased in the high density treatments both allopatry and sympatry with brown trout. Stomach contents and growth of brown trout were not affected by competitor species (rainbow trout) or total fish density. These results imply that brown trout are competitively superior to rainbow trout. Therefore, there is the potential for the replacement of rainbow trout by brown trout through interspecific competition. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Irvine J.R.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Fukuwaka M.-A.,Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2011

Understanding reasons for historical patterns in salmon abundance could help anticipate future climate-related changes. Recent salmon abundance in the northern North Pacific Ocean, as indexed by commercial catches, has been among the highest on record, with no indication of decline; the 2009 catch was the highest to date. Although the North Pacific Ocean continues to produce large quantities of Pacific salmon, temporal abundance patterns vary among species and areas. Currently, pink and chum salmon are very abundant overall and Chinook and coho salmon are less abundant than they were previously, whereas sockeye salmon abundance varies among areas. Analyses confirm climate-related shifts in abundance, associated with reported ecosystem regime shifts in approximately 1947, 1977, and 1989. We found little evidence to support a major shift after 1989. From 1990, generally favourable climate-related marine conditions in the western North Pacific Ocean, as well as expanding hatchery operations and improving hatchery technologies, are increasing abundances of chum and pink salmon. In the eastern North Pacific Ocean, climate-related changes are apparently playing a role in increasing chum and pink salmon abundances and declining numbers of coho and Chinook salmon. © 2011 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Source


Funamoto T.,Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
Fisheries Oceanography | Year: 2011

Recruitment of the northern Japan Sea stock (JSS) of walleye pollock has been decreasing since around 1990. In this study, I analyzed the factors causing this decrease in recruitment by investigating the relationship between recruitment, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and environmental factors using a generalized additive model (GAM). GAM fit to the data showed the importance of SSB, sea surface temperature (SST), ocean current strength (Tsushima Warm Current) and wind intensity (Asian monsoon) in determining the recruitment. Of these, the relationship between SSB and recruitment was positive and not negatively density-dependent. On the other hand, the recruitment was negatively related to SST and ocean current strength, and a dome-shaped relationship was observed between wind intensity and recruitment. Since around 1990, the values of SST and ocean current strength have mostly been high and that of wind intensity mostly low. In addition, SSB has been decreasing since the late 1990s. It is likely that the recruitment decline of JSS after approximately 1990 has been caused by warm water temperature, strong Tsushima Warm Current and weak Asian monsoon, and that the recent decrease in SSB has amplified this recruitment decline. According to the model's estimation, a recruitment recovery due to environmental improvement will be highly restricted as long as SSB remains at its current low level. Significant recovery of SSB is urgently needed for JSS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Morita K.,Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
Fisheries Oceanography | Year: 2011

Relationships between the vertical distribution and thermal habitat, and body size of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta were studied in the Bering Sea in summer using trawl surveys at various depths. Chum salmon abundance decreased with increasing depth, but the patterns of decrease differed between size groups. The abundance of small salmon fell rapidly with depth, whereas that of large salmon decreased gradually to 40m depth, and abruptly below that. The average fork length of chum salmon collected from each trawl correlated positively with trawl net depth and negatively with water temperature. Since the optimal temperature for growth decreases with body size in this species, the observed body size-related vertical habitat use by chum salmon may indicate size-dependent thermal preferences. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Katsumata K.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Yoshinari H.,Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
Journal of Oceanography | Year: 2010

We used Argo float drift data to estimate average ocean currents at 1000 dbar depth from early 2000 to early 2010. Our estimates cover the global oceans, except for marginal seas and ice-covered regions, at a resolution of 1 degree in latitude and longitude. The estimated flow field satisfies the horizontal boundary condition of no flow through the topography, and is in geostrophic balance. We also estimated the uncertainty in the average flow field, which had a typical magnitude of 0.03 ms-1. The uncertainty is relatively large (>0.03 ms-1 in both the zonal and meridional directions) near the Equator and in the Southern Ocean. The array bias, which is the bias due to the horizontal gradient in the spatial density of the float data, is generally negligible, with an average magnitude outside the equatorial region of 0.007 ms-1, becoming relatively large (>0.01 ms-1) only near the coastal regions. The measurement uncertainty is assumed to be spatially uniform and includes errors due to the Argos positioning system, internal clock drift, unknown surface drift before submerging or after surfacing, and unknown drifts during ascent and descent between the surface and the parking depth. We found that the overall uncertainty was not sensitive to the assumed value of the measurement uncertainty (εm)1/2 when (εm)1/2 < 0.01 ms-1 but it increased with (εm)1/2 for (εm)1/2 > 0.01 ms-1. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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