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Tsuchiya Y.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Kaneki Y.,Field Technology Laboratory Inc | Yamakoshi Y.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute
Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan | Year: 2011

Transesterification is affected by the free fatty acid (FFA) content of vegetable oils or animal fats. A two-step H2SO4/CaO-catalyzed methanolysis process has been employed for the efficient conversion of Jatropha curcas crude oil, which has an acid value greater than 30 mg KOH/g, into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of H2SO4 catalyst addition, of FFA, and of the water produced as a by-product are investigated. The maximum esterification activity of the initial FFA content are obtained with 0.5-1.2 wt% H2SO4 relative to Jatropha crude oil. The esterification product is used as the substrate for a second, CaO-catalyzed, transesterification.Water usually has an adverse effect on transesterification; however, this study proves that the effect of water is negligible. Using this two-step methanolysis reaction, a FAME level greater than 96% can be obtained in the final product. © 2011 The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan.


Yamada S.,Hokkaido University | Yamada S.,Meijo University | Matsushima K.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Ura H.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2013

The biological functions of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are executed by the interaction of specific oligosaccharide sequences in the polysaccharide chain with effective proteins. Thus, CS oligosaccharides are expected to have pharmacological applications. Furthermore, the demand for CS in health food supplements and medication is growing. However, the absorbency of CS polysaccharides in the digestive system is very low. Since the activity of orally administered CS is expected to increase by depolymerization, industrial production of CS oligosaccharides is required. In this study, hydrolysis with subcritical and super-critical water was applied to the depolymerization of CS for the first time, and hydrolytic conditions for oligosaccharide production were examined. CS oligosaccharides principally containing an N-acetyl-d-galactosamine residue at their reducing ends were successfully obtained. No significant desulfation was found in CS oligosaccharides prepared under optimized conditions. The production of CS oligosaccharides by this method will have a strong influence on the CS-related materials market. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kasai N.,Yokohama National University | Takada A.,Yokohama National University | Fukuoka K.,University of Shiga Prefecture | Aiyama H.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Hashimoto M.,Aomori Polytechnic College
NDT and E International | Year: 2011

Quantitative investigation of a standard test shim for magnetic particle testing has been carried out. The current values of the magnetizing yoke to obtain magnetic particle indication were measured experimentally. An analytical model for the experimental conditions was then formulated to obtain the amplitude of the leakage magnetic flux from an artificial groove in a type A standard test shim. The magnetic flux densities in the type A standard test shim and the test object were obtained using finite element analysis. In a test object with high permeability, the magnetic flux density was almost in the saturation regime when the magnetic particle indication was obtained. On the other hand, in a test object not having high permeability, the magnetic flux density was small when magnetic particle indication was obtained. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute, National Hospital Organization and Hokkaido University
Type: | Journal: Clinical oral implants research | Year: 2017

Regenerating critical-size bone injury is a major problem that continues to inspire the design of new graft materials. Therefore, tissue engineering has become a novel approach for targeting bone regeneration applications. Human teeth are a rich source of stem cells, matrix, trace metal ions, and growth factors. A vital tooth-derived demineralized dentin matrix is acid-insoluble and composed of cross-linked collagen with growth factors. In this study, we recycled human non-functional tooth into a unique geometric dentin scaffold, entitled perforated root-demineralized dentin matrix (PR-DDM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of PR-DDM as the scaffold for regenerating bone in critical-size iliac defects.Artificial macro-pores (1mm in diameter) were added to human vital wisdom tooth after removing the enamel and pulp portions. The modified tooth was demineralized in 0.34N HNOPR-DDM exhibited better bone ingrowth, especially in the artificial macro-pores. The results of micro-CT and 3D micro-CT revealed good union between scaffold and native bone. New bone formation was observed in almost all portions of PR-DDM. Higher bone volume inside the scaffold was detected at 4months compared with 2months. New bone ingrowth was ankylosed with PR-DDM, and both osteoinduction and osteoconduction capability of PR-DDM were confirmed histologically. The ratio of new bone formation was higher at 4months compared with 2months by histomorphometric analysis.Altogether, these results demonstrated that the human tooth-derived graft material with a unique geometric structure, PR-DDM, contributed to active bone ingrowth in critical-size bone defects. This novel scaffold may have great utility in the near-future clinical application.


Ogawa T.,Kyoto University | Akazawa T.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Tabata Y.,Kyoto University
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with gelatin hydrogel microspheres of cell scaffold which can release transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Gelatin was dehydrothermally cross-linked in different conditions in a water-in-oil emulsion state to obtain gelatin hydrogel microspheres with different water content. The microspheres functioned not only as the scaffold of MSC, but also the carrier matrix of TGF-β1 release. The MSC proliferation depended on the water content of microspheres. Higher MSC proliferation was observed for the gelatin microspheres with lower water content. When cultured with the gelatin hydrogel microspheres, MSC formed their aggregates, in contrast to culturing with hydrogel sheets. The cell viability was significantly high compared with that of the hydrogel sheet. The production of sulfated glycosaminaglycan (sGAG) from MSC was examined as a measure of chondrogenic differentiation, after their culturing in a normal and chondrogenic differentiation media. For both the cultures, the amount of sGAG produced was significantly higher for MSC cultured with the gelatin microspheres than that of the gelatin sheet. Stronger differentiation of MSC was achieved in culture with the microspheres incorporating TGF-β1 than that of MSC cultured in the medium containing the same amount of TGF-β1. It is concluded that the gelatin hydrogel microspheres function well as both the scaffold of MSC and the matrix of TGF-β1 release, resulting in enhanced MSC aggregation and the consequent promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Chatterjee M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Matsushima K.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Ikushima Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Sato M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2010

A simple method has been described to accomplish the formation of linear alkane with >99% selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide under very mild conditions using Pd/Al-MCM-41 catalyst. The linear alakne was formed through the hydrogenation and dehydration/hydrogenation of 4-5-(5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2- yl)but-3-en-2-one, which is an aldol condensation product of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and acetone. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Nakajima Y.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Keeratihattayakorn S.,Hokkaido University | Yoshinari S.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Tadano S.,Hokkaido University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2014

Electromyography computed tomography (EMG-CT) method is proposed for visualizing the individual muscle activities in the human forearm. An EMG conduction model was formulated for reverse-estimation of muscle activities using EMG signals obtained with multi surface electrodes. The optimization process was calculated using sequential quadratic programming by comparing the estimated EMG values from the model with the measured values. The individual muscle activities in the deep region were estimated and used to produce an EMG tomographic image. For validation of the method, isometric contractions of finger muscles were examined for three subjects, applying a flexion load (4.9, 7.4 and 9.8 N) to the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger. EMG signals in the forearm were recorded during the tasks using multiple surface electrodes, which were bound around the subject's forearm. The EMG-CT method illustrates the distribution of muscle activities within the forearm. The change in amplitude and area of activated muscles can be observed. The normalized muscle activities of all three subjects appear to increase monotonically with increases in the load. Kinesiologically, this method was able to estimate individual muscle activation values and could provide a novel tool for studying hand function and development of an examination for evaluating rehabilitation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ike K.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Kameyama N.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Ito A.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Imai S.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2012

To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.


Kobayashi H.,Hokkaido University | Yamakoshi Y.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Hosaka Y.,Hokkaido University | Yabushita M.,Hokkaido University | Fukuoka A.,Hokkaido University
Catalysis Today | Year: 2014

The influence of lignin and inorganic salts on the catalytic activity was studied in the hydrolytic hydrogenation of real biomass by a supported Pt catalyst. The direct conversion of raw silver grass by Pt/carbon catalyst under H2 pressure produced small amounts of sorbitol (2.8 wt%), xylitol (7.3 wt%), and other sugar alcohols. It has been suggested that lignin reduces the reactivity of cellulose, as lignin exists together with cellulose in the biomass and both compounds are insoluble in water. Moreover, even weak bases drastically change the product distribution with more by-products such as EG and PG. Bases enhance the decomposition of sugar intermediates and sorbitol. The removal of lignin and inorganic salts by alkali-explosion and neutralization raises the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose, thus increasing the yields of sorbitol (13 wt%) and xylitol (14 wt%) in the hydrolytic hydrogenation reactions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Uchida M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Nagashima K.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Akatsuka Y.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Murakami T.,The Mutual | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes severe neuromuscular diseases, repeated abortion, stillbirth, and congenital infection in livestock and companion animals. The development of an effective vaccine against neosporosis in cattle is an important issue due to the significant worldwide economic impact of this disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity of four bradyzoite antigens, NcBAG1 (first described in this study), NcBSR4, NcMAG1, and NcSAG4, using an acute infection mouse model to determine synergistic effects with the tachyzoite antigen as a candidate for vaccine production. Mice were inoculated with the recombinant vaccines (r-)NcBAG1, rNcBSR4, rNcMAG1, rNcSAG4, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (adjuvant control group) in an oil-in-water emulsion with bitter gourd extract, a Th1 immune stimulator, or PBS alone as the infection control group. Mice inoculated with each vaccine developed antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and isolated splenocytes from mice produced high levels of interferon-γ when infected with the N. caninum tachyzoite. The mice inoculated with rNcBAG1, rNcMAG1, or rNcSAG4 developed slight to moderate clinical symptoms but did not succumb to infection. In contrast, rNcBSR4 and both control groups developed severe disease and some mice required euthanasia. The parasitic burden in the brain tissues of vaccinated mice was assessed by N. caninum-specific real-time PCR at 5 weeks after infection. The parasite load in rNcBAG1-, rNcMAG1-, and rNcSAG4-inoculated mice was significantly lower than that in adjuvant and infection control mice. Therefore, these antigens may be useful for the production of a N. caninum-specific vaccination protocol. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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