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Ike K.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Kameyama N.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Ito A.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Imai S.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2012

To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. Source


Kobayashi T.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Narabu S.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Yanai Y.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Hatano Y.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. The aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the N. caninum orthologue (NcBAG1) of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein TgBAG1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. Isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with TgBAG1. NcBAG1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to TgBAG1. A putative signal peptide sequence and an invariant GVL motif characteristic of small heat-shock proteins were identified in the predicted N. caninum amino acid sequence. We expressed the NcBAG1 gene as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (rNcBAG1) in Escherichia coli and used the purified 60 kDa protein to obtain a monoclonal antibody (Mab). rNcBAG1 reacted to Mabs specific for NcBAG1 and TgBAG1. No reaction between the NcBAG1 Mab and N. caninum tachyzoites was observed. Although the predicted molecular mass of NcBAG1 is 25 kDa, Western blot analysis of parasite lysates using the NcBAG1 Mab revealed a cross-reactive protein of approximately 30 kDa. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays using the tachyzoite-specific Mab for NcSAG1 and the bradyzoite-specific Mab for TgBAG1 or NcSAG4 revealed NcBAG1-specific expression in bradyzoites in cultures exposed to sodium nitroprusside, a reagent that increases the frequency of bradyzoites. Interestingly, the NcBAG1 protein was identified in the cytoplasm of the bradyzoite-stage parasites. This preliminary analysis of the NcBAG1 gene will assist investigations into the role of this protein in N. caninum. © 2013 American Society of Parasitologists. Source


Chatterjee M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Matsushima K.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Ikushima Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Sato M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2010

A simple method has been described to accomplish the formation of linear alkane with >99% selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide under very mild conditions using Pd/Al-MCM-41 catalyst. The linear alakne was formed through the hydrogenation and dehydration/hydrogenation of 4-5-(5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2- yl)but-3-en-2-one, which is an aldol condensation product of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and acetone. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Ogawa T.,Kyoto University | Akazawa T.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute | Tabata Y.,Kyoto University
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with gelatin hydrogel microspheres of cell scaffold which can release transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Gelatin was dehydrothermally cross-linked in different conditions in a water-in-oil emulsion state to obtain gelatin hydrogel microspheres with different water content. The microspheres functioned not only as the scaffold of MSC, but also the carrier matrix of TGF-β1 release. The MSC proliferation depended on the water content of microspheres. Higher MSC proliferation was observed for the gelatin microspheres with lower water content. When cultured with the gelatin hydrogel microspheres, MSC formed their aggregates, in contrast to culturing with hydrogel sheets. The cell viability was significantly high compared with that of the hydrogel sheet. The production of sulfated glycosaminaglycan (sGAG) from MSC was examined as a measure of chondrogenic differentiation, after their culturing in a normal and chondrogenic differentiation media. For both the cultures, the amount of sGAG produced was significantly higher for MSC cultured with the gelatin microspheres than that of the gelatin sheet. Stronger differentiation of MSC was achieved in culture with the microspheres incorporating TGF-β1 than that of MSC cultured in the medium containing the same amount of TGF-β1. It is concluded that the gelatin hydrogel microspheres function well as both the scaffold of MSC and the matrix of TGF-β1 release, resulting in enhanced MSC aggregation and the consequent promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Source


Tsuchiya Y.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Kaneki Y.,Field Technology Laboratory Inc | Yamakoshi Y.,Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute
Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan | Year: 2011

Transesterification is affected by the free fatty acid (FFA) content of vegetable oils or animal fats. A two-step H2SO4/CaO-catalyzed methanolysis process has been employed for the efficient conversion of Jatropha curcas crude oil, which has an acid value greater than 30 mg KOH/g, into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of H2SO4 catalyst addition, of FFA, and of the water produced as a by-product are investigated. The maximum esterification activity of the initial FFA content are obtained with 0.5-1.2 wt% H2SO4 relative to Jatropha crude oil. The esterification product is used as the substrate for a second, CaO-catalyzed, transesterification.Water usually has an adverse effect on transesterification; however, this study proves that the effect of water is negligible. Using this two-step methanolysis reaction, a FAME level greater than 96% can be obtained in the final product. © 2011 The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan. Source

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