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Ohmori T.,Kyushu University | Mutaguchi Y.,Kyushu University | Yoshikawa S.,Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center | Doi K.,Kyushu University | Ohshima T.,Kyushu University
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2011

We report that the lees in salmon fish sauce consist of Tyr and Phe. The concentration of free l-Tyr (2.0. mM) was almost same as the saturated concentration (2.4. mM) in water at 20°C. This result shows that lees are formed by Tyr precipitation due to its saturation in the sauce. © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Sakamoto M.,Kushiro Fisheries Research Institute | Akino M.,Kushiro Fisheries Research Institute | Takeda T.,Central Fisheries Research Institute | Imamura T.,Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center | Iida T.,Kushiro Fisheries Research Institute
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2011

To increase the market niche for scallop-based food products, we developed a high-quality scallop flake food and a new type of fermented sushi using boiled scallop (izushi). Scallop flake food comprises heated adductor muscles that are shredded into coarse fibers. Scallop flake food is a useful material for various culinary preparations, and its processing method is quite simple. Such foods are expected to become popular. In the present study, conditions for thawing frozen adductor muscle, heating adductor muscle, breaking up adductor muscle fibers, and sterilizing scallop flake food were improved. We finally established a processing method for high-quality scallop flake food. Izushi is one of the traditional fermented foods consumed in the Hokkaido and Tohoku districts. However, izushi made from scallop adductor muscle has not yet been developed. One of the reasons for this is that the weak texture and taste of scallop adductor muscle are not considered suitable for izushi preparation. We therefore investigated conditions for pickling and adjusting the weight of scallop adductor muscle during the fermentation process, and found ways to improve both the texture and taste of izushi. Our innovative processes will enable novel, marketable food products based on scallop adductor muscle.

Yasokawa D.,Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center | Iwahashi H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2010

Development of genomics and bioinformatics enable us to analyze the global gene expression profiles of cells by DNA microarray. Changes in gene expression patterns indicate changes in its physiological conditions. Following the exposure of an organism or cell to toxic chemicals or other environmental stresses, the global genetic responses can be expeditiously and easily analyzed. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is one of the most studied and useful model eukaryotes. The biggest advantage of yeast genomics is the available functional information for each gene and a considerable number of data are accumulating in the field of toxicity assessment using yeast DNA microarray. In this review, we discuss the toxicogenomics of metal ions, alcohols and aldehydes, and other chemicals. © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Yasokawa D.,Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center | Murata S.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Iwahashi Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kitagawa E.,Applied Science Business Unit | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

To assess the toxicity of the C1 compounds methanol and formaldehyde, gene expression profiles of treated baker's yeast were analyzed using DNA microarrays. Among approximately 6,000 open reading frames (ORFs), 314 were repressed and 375 were induced in response to methanol. The gene process category "energy" comprised the greatest number of induced genes while "protein synthesis" comprised the greatest number of repressed genes. Products of genes induced by methanol were mainly integral membrane proteins or were localized to the plasma membrane. A total of 622 and 610 ORFs were induced or repressed by formaldehyde, respectively. More than one-third of the genes found to be strongly repressed by formaldehyde belonged to the "protein synthesis" functional category. Conversely, genes in the subcategory of "nitrogen, sulfur, and selenium metabolism" within "metabolism" and in the category of "cell rescue, defense, and virulence" were up-regulated by exposure to formaldehyde. Our data suggest that membrane structure is a major target of methanol toxicity, while proteins were major targets of formaldehyde toxicity. © 2009 Humana Press.

Uchiyama H.,Aureo Science Co. | Iwai A.,Aureo Science Co. | Asada Y.,Aureo Co. | Muramatsu D.,Aureo Science Co. | And 7 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: The β(1!3),(1!6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β(1!3),(1!6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings: Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 × 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1!3),(1!6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions: Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β(1!3),(1!6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for further study on the efficacies of oral administration of β-(1!3),(1!6)-D-glucans on domestic animals. © 2012 Uchiyama et al.

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