Kohei Y.,Sapporo Medical University |
Kohei Y.,Hokkaido Bunkyo University |
Sumi A.,Sapporo Medical University |
Kobayashi N.,Sapporo Medical University
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016
We investigated the seasonality of age-specific tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. To allow the development of TB control strategies for different age groups we used a time-series analysis, including a spectral analysis and least squares method, to analyse the monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of all forms of active TB in Japan from January 1998 to December 2013. The time-series data are reported in 10-year age groups: 0-9, 10-19, ... , 70-79, and ≥80 years. We defined the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q 1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle to the whole amplitude of the time-series data. The Q 1 values in the age groups corresponding to adolescence and middle life (10-39 years) and old age (≥70 years) were high. The peaks in the active TB epidemics for the ≥70 years age group occurred in August and September, 1-2 months behind the peaks for the 10-39 years age group (June and July). An active TB epidemic might be attributable to travel by public transport and irregular employment in the 10-39 years age group and immune system suppression by low winter temperatures in the ≥70 years age group. © Cambridge University Press 2016.
Nakamura R.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
Adachi R.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
Itagaki Y.,Hokkaido Bunkyo University |
Fukutomi Y.,Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology |
And 2 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2013
Background: We performed an in vitro elicitation test to determine the ability of different types of wheat-allergic patients' IgE to induce humanized mast cell activation after the addition of various time-treated acid-hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs). Methods: The reactivity of heat- and various time-treated acid-hydrolyzed glutens (acid-HGs) and commercial acid-HWP (HWP1), using serum IgE from wheat allergy accompanied by skin and rhinoconjunctival sensitization to HWP1 in the facial soap, pediatric subjects with food allergy to native wheat, adult wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis subjects, and nonatopic healthy subjects, was elucidated by dot blot and a luciferase assay-based in vitro elicitation test (EXiLE test). Results: Serum from subjects sensitized with HWP1 reacted only to acid-HGs (acid-HGs treated for 0.5-3 or 6 h), but not native gluten, in the results of the dot blot. In contrast, sera from pediatric subjects sensitized with native wheat reacted to native gluten more strongly and showed only slight reactions to 0.5- to 1-hour-treated acid-HGs. The results of the in vitro elicitation test showed that acid hydrolyzation of the gluten attenuated antigen-induced luciferase expression in a time-dependent manner for sera from native-wheat-sensitized pediatric subjects. On the other hand, in the sera from HWP1-sensitized subjects, acid hydrolyzation of the gluten for 0.5 h dramatically increased luciferase expression. Conclusions: Even after prolonged hydrolyzation, acid-HGs still retained the ability to activate mast cells in the case of HWP1-sensitized subjects. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fujiwara K.,Kanazawa University |
Yaguchi C.,Hokkaido Bunkyo University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2013
In bilateral shoulder flexion with the arms moving from the sides of the body to the horizontal level while standing, no preceding activation of the triceps surae (TS) with respect to focal muscles has been found. Considering that preceding activation would offer a useful indicator of anticipatory postural control, it was attempted to induce preceding activation by limiting the anterior displacement range of the center of foot pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPap). Subjects were 13 healthy young adults. The 50% anterior range of CoPap displacement caused by shoulder flexion was calculated, and the floor inclined by the subject's weight when CoPap extended beyond that range. Subjects were instructed not to incline the floor during shoulder flexion. Under the limitation condition, the ankle and knee joints plantarflexed and extended at 1.1°, respectively, with no hip movement; that is, the whole body inclined backward by pivoting at the ankle. This limitation resulted in preceding muscle activation of TS as well as erector spinae and biceps femoris, and no significant differences in onset time were seen between these muscles. These results demonstrated that by limiting CoPap anterior displacement, preceding activation of TS could be induced with backward inclination of the whole body. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Maekawa M.,Kanazawa University |
Fujiwara K.,Kanazawa University |
Kiyota N.,Health Science University |
Yaguchi C.,Hokkaido Bunkyo University
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2013
Background: Adaptation changes in postural control and contingent negative variation (CNV) for the elderly were investigated during repeated forward floor translation. Methods: Fifteen healthy elderly persons, living in the suburban area of Kanazawa City, Japan, underwent backward postural disturbance by a forward-floor translation (S2) 2 s after an auditory warning signal (S1). A set with 20 trials was repeated until a negative peak of late CNV was recognized in the 600-ms period before S2, and the last set was defined as the final set. Electroencephalograms, center of foot pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPap), and electromyograms of postural muscles were analyzed. Results: CoPap displacement generated by the floor translation was significantly decreased until the twelfth trial in the first set, and mean CoPap displacement was smaller in the second and final sets than in the first set. The mean displacement was significantly smaller in the final set than the previous set. A late CNV with a negative peak was not recognized in the first and second sets. However, most subjects (13/15) showed a negative peak by the fourth set, when the late CNV started to increase negatively from about 1,000 ms after S1 and peaked at about 300 ms before S2. At about 160 ms before the CNV peak, the CoPap forward shift started. The increase in timing of the gastrocnemius activity related to the CoPap shift was significantly correlated with the CNV peak timing (r = 0.64). After S2, peak amplitudes of the anterior postural muscles were significantly decreased in the final set compared to the first set.Conclusions: It was demonstrated that even for the elderly, with so many repetitions of postural disturbance, a late CNV with a negative peak was recognized, leading to accurate postural preparation. This suggests the improvement of frontal lobe function (e.g., anticipatory attention and motor preparation) in the elderly. © 2013 Maekawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Sasaki S.,Hokkaido University |
Sasaki S.,Hokkaido Bunkyo University |
Yoshioka E.,Asahikawa University |
Saijo Y.,Asahikawa University |
And 4 more authors.
Alcohol | Year: 2013
Epidemiological data indicate the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mobility and mortality. However, studies assessing the relationship between alcohol consumption and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness have provided inconsistent results. In addition, data regarding the effect of alcohol on arterial stiffness in women has been limited. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between alcohol consumption and PWV among female and male workers in Japan. Study participants were local government employees in Hokkaido, Japan, who underwent annual health check-ups. All data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The average daily alcohol consumption of the previous month, based on the alcohol concentration of each beverage type (g/day, ethanol equivalent), was estimated according to the frequency and amount of consumption. Data from 3893 participants (812 women and 3081 men) were analyzed. In women, non-drinkers had significantly higher PWV than women who consumed <10g/day of alcohol. In men, compared with those who reportedly drank 20-39g/day, non-drinkers and those who drank <20g/day and ≥60g/day had significantly higher PWV. Alcohol consumption showed a J-shaped association with PWV in men (p for quadratic term<0.036) and marginally in women (p<0.056). The results of stratified analyses by age groups showed a significant J-shaped association, which was most notable for men ≥45 years (p<0.005). In middle-aged Japanese women and men, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower PWV, which in turn correlates with a reduction in vascular stiffness. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.