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Furukawa T.,Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center | Awata T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Satoh M.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2013

Golden hamsters were selected for large (high selection direction: H) and small (low selection direction: L) testis size, as measured in live males at age 13 weeks over six generations. The selection response and correlated responses in female reproductive traits were evaluated in terms of the divergence between H and L lines for testis size. In males, the differences in testis size at 13 weeks, testis weight at 19 weeks, and body weight at 13 and 19 weeks were significant at the 1% level from generation 1 onward. The realized heritability of testis size, as estimated from regression of the selection responses on effective selection differentials, was 0.29. This was similar to the heritability estimated by using the multiple-trait animal model restricted maximum likelihood (0.30). In females, significant differences in ovulation rate at the 5% level were detected in generations 5 and 6. Litter size 1 day after birth also diverged between the H and L lines, but the difference was not consistently significant. The realized genetic correlation between testis size and ovulation rate was 0.67. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wu C.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Hirafuji M.,Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. © 2016 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Kim Y.B.,Chungnam National University | Thwe A.A.,Chungnam National University | Kim Y.J.,Chungnam National University | Li X.,Chungnam National University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) contains a high level of flavonoid compounds, which have beneficial and pharmacological effects on health. In this study, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) and p-coumarate 3′-hydroxylase (C3H), which are involved in chlorogenic acid (CGA) biosynthesis. We examined the expression levels of HQT and C3H using real-time RT-PCR in different organs and sprouts of two tartary buckwheat cultivars (Hokkai T8 and T10) and analyzed CGA content using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the organs, the flowers in both cultivars showed the highest levels of CGA. We concluded that the expression pattern of FtHQT and FtC3H did not match the accumulation pattern of CGA in different organs of T8 and T10 cultivars. Gene expression and CGA content varied between the cultivars. We presume that FtHQT and FtC3H levels might be controlled by multiple metabolic pathways in different organs of tartary buckwheat. Probably, FtC3H might have a greater effect on CGA biosynthesis than FtHQT. Our results will be helpful for a greater understanding of CGA biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Li X.,Chungnam National University | Thwe A.A.,Chungnam National University | Park N.I.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Suzuki T.,Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Buckwheat sprouts are considered an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds. The time duration and amount of light for sprouting strongly affect the nutritional quality of sprouts. In this study, these two factors were investigated in two cultivars of tartary buckwheat sprouts: Hokkai T8 and T10. The transcriptional levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes were investigated in light/dark- and dark-treated sprouts. Among the main flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtF3H, FtDFR, and FtANS exhibited higher transcriptional levels than others as compared to that of a housekeeping gene (histone H3) during sprouting; FtF3′H1, FtF3′H2, FtFLS2, and FtANS were substantially upregulated at 2, 4, and 6 days in light/dark-treated T10 sprouts than in dark-treated ones. However, FtDFR was downregulated in 8 and 10 day old light/dark-treated sprouts of both cultivars. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that increasing the culture time did not affect the accumulation of flavonoids or anthocyanins. However, light contributed the production of anthocyanins in Hokkai T10 sprouts. The anthocyanins included cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, and delphinidin-3-O-coumarylglucoside, which were identified by HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Instead of anthocyanins, Hokkai T8 sprouts produced large amounts of 4 flavonoid C-glycosylflavone compounds in both light/dark and dark conditions: orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. These results indicate that these two types of tartary buckwheat sprouts have different mechanisms for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis that also vary in light/dark and dark conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Nishio Z.,Agricultural Research Center | Ito M.,Agricultural Research Center | Tabiki T.,Agricultural Research Center | Nagasawa K.,Agricultural Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2013

over a 15-yr period (1997-2011), the relationship between growing-season temperatures and both sink components and yield of two elite winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Hokushin (soft red) and Kitanokaori (hard red), was investigated in Hokkaido, Japan. Culm length, spike length, duration from heading to maturation, and thousand-grain weights showed a significant inverse correlation to mean seasonal ambient temperatures. In particular, higher temperatures during vegetative stage significantly reduced the magnitude of sink components. Specifically, a 1°C rise in temperature in late May resulted in spike length being shortened by 2.8 mm (3.2%) for Hokushin and 4.4 mm (4.5%) for Kitanokaori. Higher temperatures from heading to maturity significantly shortened the duration from heading to maturation and resulted in a smaller grain size. Specifically, a mean rise in temperature of 1°C from heading to maturation resulted in a 2.8-d (6.4%) shortening of the duration from heading to maturation in both cultivars, and a concurrent decline in thousand-grain weight of 2.3 g (6.1%) for Hokushin and 1.9 g (4.6%) for Kitanokaori. Given the dissonance between the large sink size and limited supply of assimilates arising from lower spring and higher summer temperatures, severe yield reductions can be expected. The maintenance of higher grain weight under heat stress, such as exhibited by Kitanokaori, can serve as a useful measure of heat tolerance in wheat. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

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