Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center

Sapporo, Japan

Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center

Sapporo, Japan
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PubMed | Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center and Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History
Type: | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2014

In the context of the biodiversity conservation of the oceanic Ogasawara Islands, the parasitoid species of Aulacidae are reviewed. We examined material from eight islands with or without invasion of the introduced lizard Anolis carolinensis (Voigt 1832) (green anoles): two species of Pristaulacus Kieffer 1900, P. boninensis Konishi, 1989, and P. anijimensis sp. nov., are recognized. The former species is widely distributed in the islands, whereas the latter species is found from a single island only, Anijima Island. Although this island appears to be currently well preserved, the recent introduction of green anoles will probably affect the conservation status of many species, including the endemic P. anijimensis sp. nov. A description of the new species, detailed drawings and descriptions of genitalia of both recognized species, an updated key to Japanese Aulacidae, and a brief discussion on the conservation aspects of Aulacidae in the Ogasawara Islands are provided.


PubMed | The National Federation of Dairy Cooperative Associations ZENRAKUREN, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Gunma Prefectural Livestock Experiment Station, Hiroshima University and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to determine the effects of differing nutrient levels during the far-off period on postpartum metabolism and milk production in lactating cows. Twenty-six multiparous cows were assigned to three dietary treatments in the far-off period: a low-energy diet (L, n=9, 80% intake of the total digestible nutrients requirement), a moderate-energy diet (M, n=8, 105%) and a high-energy diet (H, n=9, 130%). During the close-up period, all cows were provided with 105% intake. After parturition, all cows were fed a lactation diet. The BCS recovery was slow, and low milk yield was found in the H group. In the L group, BCS recovery was favorable after parturition, and lactation persistence was increased. The L group had low rumen endotoxin activity and a high initial ovulation rate after parturition. These findings indicate that a high-energy diet during the far-off period has a deleterious effect on milk production. In contrast, the restricted diet in the far-off period increased adaptability with respect to peri-parturition metabolic changes, improved the post-parturition nutritional state, and increased milk production. Furthermore, it suggests that the nutrient levels in the far-off period affect rumen endotoxin activity and reproductive function after parturition.


PubMed | Czech Republic Crop Research Institute, Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center and Hokkaido University
Type: | Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB | Year: 2014

Cold shock domain (CSD) proteins, or Y-box proteins, are nucleic acid-binding proteins that are widely distributed from bacteria to higher plants and animals. Bacterial CSD proteins play an essential role in cold adaptation by destabilizing RNA secondary structures. WHEAT COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 (WCSP1) shares biochemical functions with bacterial CSD proteins and is possibly involved in cold adaptation. In this study, the temporal and spatial distribution of the wheat cold shock domain protein family (WCSPs) was serologically characterized with regard to plant development and cold adaptation. Four WCSP genes were identified through database analysis and were classified into three classes based on their molecular masses and protein domain structures. Class I (20kD) and class II (23kD) WCSPs demonstrated a clear pattern of accumulation in root and shoot meristematic tissues during vegetative growth. In response to cold, marked increases in WCSP levels were observed but the pattern of accumulation differed by tissue. Accumulation of WCSPs in crown tissue during cold acclimation was observed in the winter cultivar Chihokukomugi but not in the spring cultivar Haruyutaka, suggesting a possible function for WCSPs in cold acclimation. During flower and seed development, protein levels of class I and class II WCSPs remained high. The class III WCSP (27kD) was detected only during seed development. The highest level of class III WCSP accumulation was observed at the milky seed stage. Together, the results of this study provide a view of CSD protein accumulation throughout the life cycle of wheat and suggest that WCSPs function differentially in plant development and cold adaptation.


PubMed | Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center and Hokkaido University
Type: | Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB | Year: 2014

A novel cold-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase, TaSK5, was isolated from winter wheat using a macroarray-based differential screening approach. TaSK5 showed high similarity to Arabidopsis subgroup I GSK3/shaggy-like kinases ASK-alpha, AtSK-gamma and ASK-epsilon. RNA gel blot analyses revealed TaSK5 induction by cold and NaCl treatments and to a lesser extent by drought treatment. TaSK5 functionally complemented the cold- and salt-sensitive phenotypes of a yeast GSK3/shaggy-like kinase mutant, mck1. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaSK5 cDNA showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses. By contrast, the tolerance of the transgenic plants to freezing stress was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of abiotic stress-inducible genes were constitutively induced in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaSK5 may function in a novel signal transduction pathway that appears to be unrelated to DREB1/CBF regulon and may involve crosstalk between abiotic and hormonal signals.


Kim Y.B.,Chungnam National University | Thwe A.A.,Chungnam National University | Kim Y.J.,Chungnam National University | Li X.,Chungnam National University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) contains a high level of flavonoid compounds, which have beneficial and pharmacological effects on health. In this study, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) and p-coumarate 3′-hydroxylase (C3H), which are involved in chlorogenic acid (CGA) biosynthesis. We examined the expression levels of HQT and C3H using real-time RT-PCR in different organs and sprouts of two tartary buckwheat cultivars (Hokkai T8 and T10) and analyzed CGA content using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the organs, the flowers in both cultivars showed the highest levels of CGA. We concluded that the expression pattern of FtHQT and FtC3H did not match the accumulation pattern of CGA in different organs of T8 and T10 cultivars. Gene expression and CGA content varied between the cultivars. We presume that FtHQT and FtC3H levels might be controlled by multiple metabolic pathways in different organs of tartary buckwheat. Probably, FtC3H might have a greater effect on CGA biosynthesis than FtHQT. Our results will be helpful for a greater understanding of CGA biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Li X.,Chungnam National University | Thwe A.A.,Chungnam National University | Park N.I.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Suzuki T.,Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Buckwheat sprouts are considered an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds. The time duration and amount of light for sprouting strongly affect the nutritional quality of sprouts. In this study, these two factors were investigated in two cultivars of tartary buckwheat sprouts: Hokkai T8 and T10. The transcriptional levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes were investigated in light/dark- and dark-treated sprouts. Among the main flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtF3H, FtDFR, and FtANS exhibited higher transcriptional levels than others as compared to that of a housekeeping gene (histone H3) during sprouting; FtF3′H1, FtF3′H2, FtFLS2, and FtANS were substantially upregulated at 2, 4, and 6 days in light/dark-treated T10 sprouts than in dark-treated ones. However, FtDFR was downregulated in 8 and 10 day old light/dark-treated sprouts of both cultivars. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that increasing the culture time did not affect the accumulation of flavonoids or anthocyanins. However, light contributed the production of anthocyanins in Hokkai T10 sprouts. The anthocyanins included cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, and delphinidin-3-O-coumarylglucoside, which were identified by HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Instead of anthocyanins, Hokkai T8 sprouts produced large amounts of 4 flavonoid C-glycosylflavone compounds in both light/dark and dark conditions: orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. These results indicate that these two types of tartary buckwheat sprouts have different mechanisms for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis that also vary in light/dark and dark conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wu C.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Hirafuji M.,Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. © 2016 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Chinese Academy of Forestry and Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source.


PubMed | Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbes and environments | Year: 2013

The bacterial community of a potato phytosphere at the flowering stage was examined using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. Tissues (leaves, stems, roots and tubers) were sampled from field-grown potato plants (cultivar Matilda), and the clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes and the isolate collections using R2A medium were constructed. By analyzing the combined data set of 16S rRNA gene sequences from both clone libraries and isolate collections, 82 genera from 8 phyla were found and 237 OTUs (97% identity) at species level were identified across the potato phytosphere. The statistical analyses of clone libraries suggested that stems harbor the lowest diversity among the tissues examined. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the most dominant phylum was shown to be Proteobacteria for all tissues (62.0%-89.7% and 57.7%-72.9%, respectively), followed by Actinobacteria (5.0%-10.7% and 14.6%-39.4%, respectively). The results of principal coordinates analyses of both clone libraries and isolate collections indicated that distinct differences were observed between above- and below-ground tissues for bacterial community structures. The results also revealed that leaves harbored highly similar community structures to stems, while the tuber community was shown to be distinctly different from the stem and root communities.


PubMed | Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2013

Golden hamsters were selected for large (high selection direction: H) and small (low selection direction: L) testis size, as measured in live males at age 13 weeks over six generations. The selection response and correlated responses in female reproductive traits were evaluated in terms of the divergence between H and L lines for testis size. In males, the differences in testis size at 13 weeks, testis weight at 19 weeks, and body weight at 13 and 19 weeks were significant at the 1% level from generation 1 onward. The realized heritability of testis size, as estimated from regression of the selection responses on effective selection differentials, was 0.29. This was similar to the heritability estimated by using the multiple-trait animal model restricted maximum likelihood (0.30). In females, significant differences in ovulation rate at the 5% level were detected in generations 5 and 6. Litter size 1 day after birth also diverged between the H and L lines, but the difference was not consistently significant. The realized genetic correlation between testis size and ovulation rate was 0.67.

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