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Bohme M.,Geological Survey of Norway | Bohme M.,International Center for Geohazards | Saintot A.,Geological Survey of Norway | Saintot A.,International Center for Geohazards | And 5 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication

More than 250 rock slope failures have occurred in Sogn and Fjordane County in historical times. So far, 28 sites are known where open cracks indicate that rock slope failures may occur in the future. Detailed structural and geomorphological analyses of these sites have been conducted, and form the basis for an evaluation and comparison of the unstable rock slopes. Four of these sites are described in detail herein. The main characteristics for rock slope instabilities in Sogn and Fjordane are: (1) a preferred location within relatively weak rock units, such as phyllites and weathered mafic gneisses; and (2) the development of most instabilities at convex slope breaks, which are evident as knick-points in the slope profile. Sogn and Fjordane is compared with other Norwegian regions, particularly Møre and Romsdal County, with respect to the spatial distribution of past and current rock slope instabilities. Sogn and Fjordane shows the greatest number of historical slope failures, whereas in Møre and Romsdal a larger amount of potential instabilities is observed. We propose that the larger amount of unstable rock slopes in Møre and Romsdal may be controlled by a locally high gradient of ongoing postglacial uplift and a higher rate of neotectonic activity. © The Geological Society of London 2011. Source

Spindelbock J.P.,Hogskulen i Sogn og Fjordane | Olsen S.L.,Universitetet for Miljo og Biovitenskap

The phenomenon of individual plants being absent for one or more growing seasons before sprouting again has often been reported for at least 40 years. This has been referred to under the term prolonged vegetative dormancy (from latin «dormire» for «to sleep»), but it has only recently become a topic of study. A range of potential drivers for dormancy have been proposed during recent years which can reflect both a bet-hedging strategy in unpredictable environments, but also direct costs of living under stress. Here, we show that high grazing pressure may lead to increased dormancy ratios as a bet-hedging response in three native Norwegian grassland herb species: Veronica alpina, Viola palustris and Viola biflora. We also propose that dormancy may be more common among herbaceous plants than previously thought. Source

In Sogn og Fjordane county, W Norway, old pollarded trees of elm Ulmus glabra stand out as characteristic elements in the cultural landscape in several places. These pollarded trees, which serve as habitats for many groups of organisms and are important key species in the cultural landscape, are threatened due to changes in farming management during the last century. In order to obtain more knowledge about the bryophyte flora on older elm pollards in Sogn og Fjordane, we examined two trees from each of four locations along an east-west gradient, from a strong oceanic climate in coastal areas towards slightly continental conditions further inland. Epiphytic bryophytes were recorded in three different height zones (basal, middle, and top) on the north, east, south and west sides of the trees. We looked for differences in species number (i) between the four locations, (ii) between three height zones (basal, middle and top) of the stems, and (iii) between different expositions (N, S, E and W) of the stems. We found 31 bryophyte species on the eight examined trees. No relation between geographic position and species number was found. There were significantly more species in the basal zones than in the middle zones, while there were no significant differences between the middle zones and top zones, or between the basal zones and top zones. The species number on the northerly exposed sides was significantly higher than on the eastern and southern sides of the stem. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: YOUNG-2-2014 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2015

The overall ambition of MOVE is to provide a research-informed contribution towards an improvement of the conditions of the mobility of young people in Europe and a reduction of the negative impacts of mobility through the identification of ways of good practice thus fostering sustainable development and wellbeing. The consortium of MOVE is built up of nine partners within six countries: Luxembourg, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania and Spain. The main research question is: How can the mobility of young people be good both for socio-economic development and for individual development of young people, and what are the factors that foster/hinder such beneficial mobility? Based on an interdisciplinary and multilevel research approach the main objectives of MOVE are to: [1] carry out a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of mobility of young people in the EU; [2] generate systematic data about young peoples mobility patterns in Europe based on qualitative case studies, a mobility survey and on secondary data analysis; [3] provide a quantitative integrated database on European youth mobility; [4] offer a data based theoretical framework in which mobility can be reflected, thus contributing to the scientific and political debates. [5] explore factors that foster and factors that hinder good practice based on an integrative approach with qualitative and quantitative evidence. [6] provide evidence-based knowledge and recommendations for policy makers through the development of good-practice models. MOVE is based on a multilevel research design, including case studies on six types of mobility (higher education, voluntary work, employment, vocational training, pupils exchange and entrepreneurship), a survey (N=6400) and secondary data analysis, taking into consideration social inequality (e.g. migration background, gender, educational inequalities, impairments). The focus will be on the regional contexts of mobility and the agency of young people.

Alien species can have a considerable impact on native species and ecosystems. Garden-centres generally import and sell many different alien plant species. We studied the species assortment from ten garden centres distributed from southern to northern Norway, and categorized the species into three groups: native, 'imported' and 'not in Lids flora' (meaning that these species are not mentioned in this flora). The two latter groups comprise alien species. Native species generally constituted a small percentage, on average 12.1%, of the total number of species, while imported species and species 'not in Lids flora' achieved on average 33.3% and 54.5% of the total number of species, respectively. We did not find any geographical pattern in these results. Several of the species that are being sold, are on the Norwegian Black list in the high risk category, e.g. Aruncus dioicus, Lupinus polyphyllus, Myrrhis odorata, and Petasites hybridus. The large proportion of alien species in the assortment from the garden centres make garden centres sources for many alien species, and some of these aliens can cause considerable impact on ecosystems. Accordingly, garden centres should change their assortment toward a much larger proportion of native species. They also need to carry out risk assessments on the species they sell and certainly avoid selling species in the high risk category on the Black list. Source

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