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Wojciechowski K.,Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology | Smolka B.,Silesian University of Technology | Cupek R.,Silesian University of Technology | Ziebinski A.,Silesian University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Medical ultrasound imaging is an important tool in diagnosing and monitoring synovitis, which is an inflammation of the synovial membrane that surrounds a joint. Ultrasound images are examined by medical experts to assess the presence and progression of synovitis. Automating image analysis reduces the costs and increases the availability of the ultrasound diagnosis of synovitis and diminishes or eliminates subjective discrepancies. This article describes research that is concerned with the problem of the automatic estimation of the state of the activity of finger joint inflammation using the information that is present in ultrasonography imaging. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: YOUNG-2-2014 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2015

The overall ambition of MOVE is to provide a research-informed contribution towards an improvement of the conditions of the mobility of young people in Europe and a reduction of the negative impacts of mobility through the identification of ways of good practice thus fostering sustainable development and wellbeing. The consortium of MOVE is built up of nine partners within six countries: Luxembourg, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania and Spain. The main research question is: How can the mobility of young people be good both for socio-economic development and for individual development of young people, and what are the factors that foster/hinder such beneficial mobility? Based on an interdisciplinary and multilevel research approach the main objectives of MOVE are to: [1] carry out a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of mobility of young people in the EU; [2] generate systematic data about young peoples mobility patterns in Europe based on qualitative case studies, a mobility survey and on secondary data analysis; [3] provide a quantitative integrated database on European youth mobility; [4] offer a data based theoretical framework in which mobility can be reflected, thus contributing to the scientific and political debates. [5] explore factors that foster and factors that hinder good practice based on an integrative approach with qualitative and quantitative evidence. [6] provide evidence-based knowledge and recommendations for policy makers through the development of good-practice models. MOVE is based on a multilevel research design, including case studies on six types of mobility (higher education, voluntary work, employment, vocational training, pupils exchange and entrepreneurship), a survey (N=6400) and secondary data analysis, taking into consideration social inequality (e.g. migration background, gender, educational inequalities, impairments). The focus will be on the regional contexts of mobility and the agency of young people.


Erlinge S.,Lund University | Hasselquist D.,Lund University | Hogstedt G.,University of Bergen | Seldal T.,Hogskulen i Sogn og Fjordane | And 2 more authors.
Arctic | Year: 2011

Theory predicts that trophic interactions can produce cyclic dynamics of microtine rodents, but that in addition, social interactions are necessary to create the cyclicity. We tested the induced defence hypothesis as a component driving multi-annual cycles by analyzing data on Siberian lemming (Lemmus sibiricus Kerr) populations and the levels of trypsin inhibitors (TI) and free proteins (SPP) in their food plants. We collected data at 12 sites along the Palaearctic tundra coast in 1994 and correlated these measures with lemming density and cycle phase. A negative correlation between lemming density and TI/SPP in Carex was found at the 12 sites. Cycle phase tended to correlate significantly with TI/SPP, and plants being grazed by lemmings respond with some delay. Mass of pancreas, the organ producing proteolytic enzymes, co-varied negatively with TI/SPP. These findings are in accord with predictions from the induced defence hypothesis. In contrast, reproductive effort did not conform to the predictions but co-varied strongly with density. Data are in accord with theory predicting that, in addition to trophic interactions, some self-regulation is necessary to create cyclic dynamics. Our data show that the plant defence hypothesis alone is not a sufficient explanation for the cyclicity. Several factors interact, including predation, food quality (including induced defence chemicals), and intra-specific competition. © The Arctic Institute of North America.


Bohme M.,Geological Survey of Norway | Bohme M.,International Center for Geohazards | Saintot A.,Geological Survey of Norway | Saintot A.,International Center for Geohazards | And 5 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2011

More than 250 rock slope failures have occurred in Sogn and Fjordane County in historical times. So far, 28 sites are known where open cracks indicate that rock slope failures may occur in the future. Detailed structural and geomorphological analyses of these sites have been conducted, and form the basis for an evaluation and comparison of the unstable rock slopes. Four of these sites are described in detail herein. The main characteristics for rock slope instabilities in Sogn and Fjordane are: (1) a preferred location within relatively weak rock units, such as phyllites and weathered mafic gneisses; and (2) the development of most instabilities at convex slope breaks, which are evident as knick-points in the slope profile. Sogn and Fjordane is compared with other Norwegian regions, particularly Møre and Romsdal County, with respect to the spatial distribution of past and current rock slope instabilities. Sogn and Fjordane shows the greatest number of historical slope failures, whereas in Møre and Romsdal a larger amount of potential instabilities is observed. We propose that the larger amount of unstable rock slopes in Møre and Romsdal may be controlled by a locally high gradient of ongoing postglacial uplift and a higher rate of neotectonic activity. © The Geological Society of London 2011.


In Sogn og Fjordane county, W Norway, old pollarded trees of elm Ulmus glabra stand out as characteristic elements in the cultural landscape in several places. These pollarded trees, which serve as habitats for many groups of organisms and are important key species in the cultural landscape, are threatened due to changes in farming management during the last century. In order to obtain more knowledge about the bryophyte flora on older elm pollards in Sogn og Fjordane, we examined two trees from each of four locations along an east-west gradient, from a strong oceanic climate in coastal areas towards slightly continental conditions further inland. Epiphytic bryophytes were recorded in three different height zones (basal, middle, and top) on the north, east, south and west sides of the trees. We looked for differences in species number (i) between the four locations, (ii) between three height zones (basal, middle and top) of the stems, and (iii) between different expositions (N, S, E and W) of the stems. We found 31 bryophyte species on the eight examined trees. No relation between geographic position and species number was found. There were significantly more species in the basal zones than in the middle zones, while there were no significant differences between the middle zones and top zones, or between the basal zones and top zones. The species number on the northerly exposed sides was significantly higher than on the eastern and southern sides of the stem.


Spindelbock J.P.,Hogskulen i Sogn og Fjordane | Olsen S.L.,Universitetet for Miljo og Biovitenskap
Blyttia | Year: 2013

The phenomenon of individual plants being absent for one or more growing seasons before sprouting again has often been reported for at least 40 years. This has been referred to under the term prolonged vegetative dormancy (from latin «dormire» for «to sleep»), but it has only recently become a topic of study. A range of potential drivers for dormancy have been proposed during recent years which can reflect both a bet-hedging strategy in unpredictable environments, but also direct costs of living under stress. Here, we show that high grazing pressure may lead to increased dormancy ratios as a bet-hedging response in three native Norwegian grassland herb species: Veronica alpina, Viola palustris and Viola biflora. We also propose that dormancy may be more common among herbaceous plants than previously thought.


Hoff R.,Hogskulen i Sogn og Fjordane | Rydgren K.,Hogskulen i Sogn og Fjordane
Blyttia | Year: 2011

Alien species can have a considerable impact on native species and ecosystems. Garden-centres generally import and sell many different alien plant species. We studied the species assortment from ten garden centres distributed from southern to northern Norway, and categorized the species into three groups: native, 'imported' and 'not in Lids flora' (meaning that these species are not mentioned in this flora). The two latter groups comprise alien species. Native species generally constituted a small percentage, on average 12.1%, of the total number of species, while imported species and species 'not in Lids flora' achieved on average 33.3% and 54.5% of the total number of species, respectively. We did not find any geographical pattern in these results. Several of the species that are being sold, are on the Norwegian Black list in the high risk category, e.g. Aruncus dioicus, Lupinus polyphyllus, Myrrhis odorata, and Petasites hybridus. The large proportion of alien species in the assortment from the garden centres make garden centres sources for many alien species, and some of these aliens can cause considerable impact on ecosystems. Accordingly, garden centres should change their assortment toward a much larger proportion of native species. They also need to carry out risk assessments on the species they sell and certainly avoid selling species in the high risk category on the Black list.


Traditional, herb-rich hay meadows are a rare, but a highly-prized, type of semi-natural vegetation. There has been much interest both in preserving such meadows and in attempting to establish similar types in the last 20 years. In this paper we present the results from a three-year experiment of meadow establishment. Our aim was to examine different methods to establish herb-rich hay-meadows using different types of soil, amount of manure/fertilizer, and different diaspore transfer methods (use of dried or fresh hay), turf transplantation and seed-enriched chaff. Our results showed that it is possible to transfer many meadow species and achieve high species diversity in only a few years by transfer of fresh meadow hay including raked material, even on nutrient-poor raw forest soil, provided that manure and lime are included. Some species such as Leucanthemum vulgare. Lychnis viscaria and Rhinanthus minor were easy to transfer, while others such as Lotus comiculatus, Achillea millefolium, Galium boreale and Veronica chamaedrys were more difficult to establish. The forest soil seed-bank and seed rain seem to affect the results in a very moderate way, showing that it is not necessary to replace the soil or to use supplementary seeds to prevent establishment of unwanted species of weeds and forest species. However, forest species such as Calluna vulgaris were able to establish themselves in the experimental meadow during the three years. Traditional management will be important to control forest species and weeds. When testing out different hay-transfer methods we found that the labour-intensive mowing and collection of hay which was performed in the donor meadow six times throughout the growing season to get hold of as many ripe seeds as possible to create a suitable blend of meadow species, produced good results, but can be replaced by simpler methods using fresh meadow hay and raked material. A follow-up project which was started in 1989 shows that, after 20 years of traditional management, it is possible to establish herb-rich hay meadows with more than 60 meadow species, including rare species such as Briza media and Gymnadenia conopsea.


Rydgren K.,Hogskulen i Sogn og Fjordane
Blyttia | Year: 2011

A new locality for Buxbaumia aphylla (Brown Shield-moss) is described. The locality at Sletterust, Årdal, Sogn og Fjordane, is the first locality of the species in Western Norway, and one of the few localities in Norway in the alpine region. At Sletterust Buxbaumia aphylla was found on a spoil heap. The spoil heap was established more than 80 years ago, when surplus masses from tunnel excavations were deposited as a by-product of the exploitation of hydroelectricity. Still after more than 80 years of succession this spoil heap is sparsely vegetated. The most common species in the sample plot where Buxbaumia aphylla was found were: Empetrum nigrum, Festuca rubra, Gymnomitrium corallioides, and Cladonia stricta.

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