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Htay C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Peng H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Huang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Kong L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is a major constraint in rice production in the world. Using rDNA-ITS sequences data alignments, the genetic variation among twenty-one populations of M. graminicola (sixteen from Myanmar and five from China) was investigated. The results showed that all the populations were clearly separated from other species and that there was a low level of genetic variation among the isolates. A set of species-specific primers was designed to develop a species-specific molecular tool for the precise identification of M. graminicola. The primer reliability, specificity and sensitivity tests showed that the primer set (Mg-F3 and Mg-R2) amplified the expected fragment size of 369 bp from the template DNA of target nematode populations but not from non-target organisms. A duplex PCR test allows for saving diagnostic time and costs by amplifying the species of interest from a nematode mixture. Therefore, this species-specific primer set may be a powerful tool to improve taxonomic identification by non-specialists and the design of successful management practices as well. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging Source


Baroffio C.A.,Research Center Conthey | Trandem N.,Hogskoleveien 7 As | Birch A.N.E.,James Hutton Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus DeGeer) is one of the major pests in European raspberry production. The Scottish Crop Research Institute (now part of the James Hutton Institute) has developed a trap with a combination of colour and plant odour that attracts adult beetles of both sexes. Capturing a large number of beetles before raspberry flowering could lead to less fruit damage. In Switzerland, 50 traps per ha were deployed before flowering in 2008-11 in raspberry plantations located 1300 metres above sea level. The traps were compared with a standard recommended insecticide treatment. The beetles were active earlier than expected, and trapping should start at least 4 weeks before flowering. During 4 years of trapping in one of the Swiss plots, fruit damage has decreased by 60%. In Scotland, traps deployed within protected crops at 50/ha in a lattice design were more effective than traps deployed outside the tunnel. A single host volatile attractant (B) was more effective than a different host volatile (A) released simultaneously. The level of control using the IPM system gave control of fruit damage equivalent to current recommended insecticide sprays and enabled growers to detect pest 'hot spots' inside and outside the tunnels. In Norway, controlling raspberry beetle with traps alone has proven difficult, probably due to high immigration rates from surrounding wild raspberry during flowering, when traps are less attractive. Comparisons of various trap designs, plant odours and deployment heights demonstrated that the commercially available 'click panel' funnel trap with bee net and plant odour 'B' is as efficient as earlier prototypes, and that varying the trap deployment height between 1.0 and 1.6 m inside plantations, or between 1.0 and 2.0 m outside plantations, does not influence the number of beetles caught. These results confirm that the Scottish traps are valuable as monitoring tools, and also indicate that they could be used for integrated or organic control of raspberry beetle in areas with little wild Rubus. Source


Lysoe E.,Hogskoleveien 7 As | Frandsen R.J.N.,Technical University of Denmark | Divon H.H.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Terzi V.,Genomics Research Center | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2016

Fusarium langsethiae is a widespread pathogen of small grain cereals, causing problems with T-2 and HT-2 toxin contamination in grains every year. In an effort to better understand the biology of this fungus, we present a draft genome sequence of F. langsethiae Fl201059 isolated from oats in Norway. The assembly was fragmented, but reveals a genome of approximately 37.5 Mb, with a GC content around 48%, and 12,232 predicted protein-coding genes. Focusing on secondary metabolism we identified candidate genes for 12 polyketide synthases, 13 non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and 22 genes for terpene/isoprenoid biosynthesis. Some of these were found to be unique compared to sequence databases. The identified putative Tri5 cluster was highly syntenic to the cluster reported in F. sporotrichioides. Fusarium langsethiae Fl201059 produces a high number of secondary metabolites on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar medium, dominated by type A trichothecenes. Interestingly we found production of glucosylated HT-2 toxin (Glu-HT-2), previously suggested to be formed by the host plant and not by the fungus itself. In greenhouse inoculations of F. langsethiae Fl201059 on barley and oats, we detected the type A trichothecenes: neosolaniol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, Glu-HT-2 and numerous derivatives of these. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Exbrayat J.-M.,Catholic University of Lyon | Moudilou E.N.,Catholic University of Lyon | Lapied E.,Hogskoleveien 7 As | Lapied E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Since several years nanoparticles (NPs) are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals. © 2015 Jean-Marie Exbrayat et al. Source


Roy H.E.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Brown P.M.J.,Anglia Ruskin University | Adriaens T.,Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO | Berkvens N.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 58 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016

The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H. axyridis within many countries has been met with considerable trepidation. It is a generalist top predator, able to thrive in many habitats and across wide climatic conditions. It poses a threat to biodiversity, particularly aphidophagous insects, through competition and predation, and in many countries adverse effects have been reported on other species, particularly coccinellids. However, the patterns are not consistent around the world and seem to be affected by many factors including landscape and climate. Research on H. axyridis has provided detailed insights into invasion biology from broad patterns and processes to approaches in surveillance and monitoring. An impressive number of studies on this alien species have provided mechanistic evidence alongside models explaining large-scale patterns and processes. The involvement of citizens in monitoring this species in a number of countries around the world is inspiring and has provided data on scales that would be otherwise unachievable. Harmonia axyridis has successfully been used as a model invasive alien species and has been the inspiration for global collaborations at various scales. There is considerable scope to expand the research and associated collaborations, particularly to increase the breadth of parallel studies conducted in the native and invaded regions. Indeed a qualitative comparison of biological traits across the native and invaded range suggests that there are differences which ultimately could influence the population dynamics of this invader. Here we provide an overview of the invasion history and ecology of H. axyridis globally with consideration of future research perspectives. We reflect broadly on the contributions of such research to our understanding of invasion biology while also informing policy and people. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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