Droce A.,University of Aalborg |
Droce A.,University of Aarhus |
Sorensen J.L.,University of Aalborg |
Sorensen J.L.,University of Aarhus |
And 5 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2017
Putative proton coupled di-peptide transporters, PTR2s, are found in filamentous fungi in different numbers and their function during fungal development and plant infection is unresolved. In Fusarium graminearum, the cause of head blight in cereals, we identified four putative PTR2 transporters (FgPTR2A-D). The genes did not cluster together in phylogenetic analyses and only FgPTR2A and FgPTR2C were able to complement a PTR2 deficient yeast mutant in uptake of di-peptides. All FgPTR2s are continuously expressed throughout the fungal lifecycle, although at different levels. In silico analyses of existing expression-data show that FgPTR2B is found at higher levels than the others in planta and during sexual development. Deletion mutants of FgPTR2A, FgPTR2C, and FgPTR2D had a higher production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone and lower production of fusarielin H than the wild type. Perithecium development was reduced in these mutants but unaffected by deletion of FgPTR2B. Conidia production was reduced in the FgPTR2B mutant and unaffected by deletion of the other PTR2 transporters. Sexual development and secondary metabolite production are known to be linked at the regulatory level and the results suggest that PTR2s are active in nitrogen turnover and thereby influence signal processes. © 2017 British Mycological Society
Calvache S.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO |
Espevig T.,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO |
Andersen T.E.,HOST valuable waste |
Joner E.J.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2017
Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. Red fescue provided lower visual quality and density and less competition against AB than RF + bentgrass combinations. Increasing the N rate from 5 to 15 g N m−2yr−1 increased the proportion of bentgrass tillers from 53 to 64% in RF + CB and from 86 to 92% in RF + VB. Surface hardness increased in the order RF + VB < RF + CB < RF turfs. Ball-roll distance decreased with increasing N rate and was longer with RF and RF + VB than with RF + CB. The main effects of N and mowing height on AB invasion were not significant, but lower mowing increased AB competition in RF. Mycorrhiza colonization of roots was not significantly affected by any practice, and neither P nor arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influenced the competition against AB. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.
Baroffio C.A.,Research Center Conthey |
Trandem N.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
Birch A.N.E.,James Hutton Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012
The raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus DeGeer) is one of the major pests in European raspberry production. The Scottish Crop Research Institute (now part of the James Hutton Institute) has developed a trap with a combination of colour and plant odour that attracts adult beetles of both sexes. Capturing a large number of beetles before raspberry flowering could lead to less fruit damage. In Switzerland, 50 traps per ha were deployed before flowering in 2008-11 in raspberry plantations located 1300 metres above sea level. The traps were compared with a standard recommended insecticide treatment. The beetles were active earlier than expected, and trapping should start at least 4 weeks before flowering. During 4 years of trapping in one of the Swiss plots, fruit damage has decreased by 60%. In Scotland, traps deployed within protected crops at 50/ha in a lattice design were more effective than traps deployed outside the tunnel. A single host volatile attractant (B) was more effective than a different host volatile (A) released simultaneously. The level of control using the IPM system gave control of fruit damage equivalent to current recommended insecticide sprays and enabled growers to detect pest 'hot spots' inside and outside the tunnels. In Norway, controlling raspberry beetle with traps alone has proven difficult, probably due to high immigration rates from surrounding wild raspberry during flowering, when traps are less attractive. Comparisons of various trap designs, plant odours and deployment heights demonstrated that the commercially available 'click panel' funnel trap with bee net and plant odour 'B' is as efficient as earlier prototypes, and that varying the trap deployment height between 1.0 and 1.6 m inside plantations, or between 1.0 and 2.0 m outside plantations, does not influence the number of beetles caught. These results confirm that the Scottish traps are valuable as monitoring tools, and also indicate that they could be used for integrated or organic control of raspberry beetle in areas with little wild Rubus.
Htay C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Peng H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Huang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Kong L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is a major constraint in rice production in the world. Using rDNA-ITS sequences data alignments, the genetic variation among twenty-one populations of M. graminicola (sixteen from Myanmar and five from China) was investigated. The results showed that all the populations were clearly separated from other species and that there was a low level of genetic variation among the isolates. A set of species-specific primers was designed to develop a species-specific molecular tool for the precise identification of M. graminicola. The primer reliability, specificity and sensitivity tests showed that the primer set (Mg-F3 and Mg-R2) amplified the expected fragment size of 369 bp from the template DNA of target nematode populations but not from non-target organisms. A duplex PCR test allows for saving diagnostic time and costs by amplifying the species of interest from a nematode mixture. Therefore, this species-specific primer set may be a powerful tool to improve taxonomic identification by non-specialists and the design of successful management practices as well. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging
Roy H.E.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology |
Brown P.M.J.,Anglia Ruskin University |
Adriaens T.,Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO |
Berkvens N.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research |
And 58 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016
The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H. axyridis within many countries has been met with considerable trepidation. It is a generalist top predator, able to thrive in many habitats and across wide climatic conditions. It poses a threat to biodiversity, particularly aphidophagous insects, through competition and predation, and in many countries adverse effects have been reported on other species, particularly coccinellids. However, the patterns are not consistent around the world and seem to be affected by many factors including landscape and climate. Research on H. axyridis has provided detailed insights into invasion biology from broad patterns and processes to approaches in surveillance and monitoring. An impressive number of studies on this alien species have provided mechanistic evidence alongside models explaining large-scale patterns and processes. The involvement of citizens in monitoring this species in a number of countries around the world is inspiring and has provided data on scales that would be otherwise unachievable. Harmonia axyridis has successfully been used as a model invasive alien species and has been the inspiration for global collaborations at various scales. There is considerable scope to expand the research and associated collaborations, particularly to increase the breadth of parallel studies conducted in the native and invaded regions. Indeed a qualitative comparison of biological traits across the native and invaded range suggests that there are differences which ultimately could influence the population dynamics of this invader. Here we provide an overview of the invasion history and ecology of H. axyridis globally with consideration of future research perspectives. We reflect broadly on the contributions of such research to our understanding of invasion biology while also informing policy and people. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Lagomarsino A.,Center for Agrobiology and Pedology |
Agnelli A.E.,Center for Agrobiology and Pedology |
Pastorelli R.,Center for Agrobiology and Pedology |
Pallara G.,University of Florence |
And 2 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016
The water management system of cultivated paddy rice soils is one of the most important factors affecting the respective magnitudes of CH4 and N2O emissions. We hypothesized an effect of past management on soil microbial communities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production potential. The objectives of this study were to i) assess the influence of water management history on GHG production and microbial community structure, ii) relate GHG production to the microbial communities involved in CH4 and N2O production inhabiting the different soils. Moreover, the influence of different soil conditioning procedures on GHG production was determined. To reach these aims, we compared four soils with different water management history, using dried and sieved, pre-incubated and fresh soils. Soil conditioning procedures strongly affected GHG production: drying and sieving induced the highest production rates and the largest differences among soil types, probably through the release of labile substrates. Conversely, soil pre-incubation tended to homogenize and level out the differences among soils. The water management history strongly affected microbial community structure, which was itself tightly linked to CH4 and N2O production. N2O production was the highest in aerobic soil, which also exhibited the strongest evidence for active nitrifying communities (NirK). Drying and rewetting aerobic soil enhanced the production of nitrate, which was further reduced to N2O through denitrification. As expected, CH4 production was the lowest in aerobic soil, which showed a less abundant archaeal community. This work supports the hypothesis that microbial communities in paddy soils progressively adapt to water management practices, thereby reinforcing potential differences in GHGs production. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Lysoe E.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
Frandsen R.J.N.,Technical University of Denmark |
Divon H.H.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Terzi V.,Genomics Research Center |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2016
Fusarium langsethiae is a widespread pathogen of small grain cereals, causing problems with T-2 and HT-2 toxin contamination in grains every year. In an effort to better understand the biology of this fungus, we present a draft genome sequence of F. langsethiae Fl201059 isolated from oats in Norway. The assembly was fragmented, but reveals a genome of approximately 37.5 Mb, with a GC content around 48%, and 12,232 predicted protein-coding genes. Focusing on secondary metabolism we identified candidate genes for 12 polyketide synthases, 13 non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and 22 genes for terpene/isoprenoid biosynthesis. Some of these were found to be unique compared to sequence databases. The identified putative Tri5 cluster was highly syntenic to the cluster reported in F. sporotrichioides. Fusarium langsethiae Fl201059 produces a high number of secondary metabolites on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar medium, dominated by type A trichothecenes. Interestingly we found production of glucosylated HT-2 toxin (Glu-HT-2), previously suggested to be formed by the host plant and not by the fungus itself. In greenhouse inoculations of F. langsethiae Fl201059 on barley and oats, we detected the type A trichothecenes: neosolaniol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, Glu-HT-2 and numerous derivatives of these. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Budai A.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
Budai A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Rasse D.P.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
Lagomarsino A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council |
And 2 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2016
Biochar and its properties can be significantly altered according to how it is produced, and this has ramifications towards how biochar behaves once added to soil. We produced biochars from corncob and miscanthus straw via different methods (slow pyrolysis, hydrothermal and flash carbonization) and temperatures to assess how carbon cycling and soil microbial communities were affected. Mineralization of biochar, its parent feedstock, and native soil organic matter were monitored using 13C natural abundance during a 1-year lab incubation. Bacterial and fungal community compositions were studied using T-RFLP and ARISA, respectively. We found that persistent biochar-C with a half-life 60 times higher than the parent feedstock can be achieved at pyrolysis temperatures of as low as 370 °C, with no further gains to be made at higher temperatures. Biochar re-applied to soil previously incubated with our highest temperature biochar mineralized faster than when applied to unamended soil. Positive priming of native SOC was observed for all amendments but subsided by the end of the incubation. Fungal and bacterial community composition of the soil-biochar mixture changed increasingly with the application of biochars produced at higher temperatures as compared to unamended soil. Those changes were significantly (P < 0.005) related to biochar properties (mainly pH and O/C) and thus were correlated to pyrolysis temperature. In conclusion, our results suggest that biochar produced at temperatures as low as 370 °C can be utilized to sequester C in soil for more than 100 years while having less impact on soil microbial activities than high-temperature biochars. © 2016 The Author(s)
Exbrayat J.-M.,Catholic University of Lyon |
Moudilou E.N.,Catholic University of Lyon |
Lapied E.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
Lapied E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2015
Since several years nanoparticles (NPs) are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals. © 2015 Jean-Marie Exbrayat et al.
Uhlig S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Eriksen G.S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Hofgaard I.S.,Hogskoleveien 7 As |
Krska R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna |
And 2 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2013
Recent climatological research predicts a significantly wetter climate in Southern Norway as a result of global warming. Thus, the country has already experienced unusually wet summer seasons in the last three years (2010-2012). The aim of this pilot study was to apply an existing multi-analyte LC-MS/MS method for the semi-quantitative determination of 320 fungal and bacterial metabolites in Norwegian cereal grain samples from the 2011 growing season. Such knowledge could provide important information for future survey and research programmes in Norway. The method includes all regulated and well-known mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone. In addition, a wide range of less studied compounds are included in the method, e.g., Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids and other metabolites produced by fungal species within Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Altogether, 46 metabolites, all of fungal origin, were detected in the 76 barley, oats and wheat samples. The analyses confirmed the high prevalence and relatively high concentrations of type-A and -B trichothecenes (e.g., deoxynivalenol up to 7230 μg/kg, HT-2 toxin up to 333 μg/kg). Zearalenone was also among the major mycotoxins detected (maximum concentration 1670 μg/kg). Notably, several other Fusarium metabolites such as culmorin, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol and avenacein Y were co-occurring. Furthermore, the most prevalent Alternaria toxin was alternariol with a maximum concentration of 449 μg/kg. A number of Penicillium and Aspergillus metabolites were also detected in the samples, e.g., sterigmatocystin in concentrations up to 20 μg/kg. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.