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Naul R.,Willibald Gebhardt Research Institute | Schmelt D.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Dreiskaemper D.,University of Munster | Hoffmann D.,University of Duisburg - Essen | I'Hoir M.,Hogeschool Leiden, University of Professional Education
Family Practice | Year: 2012

Background: In 12 municipalities at the German-Dutch border an integrated approach of a multi-component intervention programme (physical activity, nutrition, public health, improvement of the physical environment) to enhance an active lifestyle has been implemented in 39 primary schools for a 4-year longitudinal intervention and evaluation study. Objective: A weekly lesson plan, including 3 hours of health enhanced physical education and two additional hours of physical activities offered by sport clubs to balance motor deficits and to reduce overweight and obesity was implemented. Furthermore, another hour of cross-curricular education of health and nutrition education is part of the school curriculum. To achieve 60 to 90 minutes of daily physical activities for 6- to 10-year-old pupils active commuting to school has become a part of school life. Methods: A physical fitness and motor development test is applied each school year including BMI measurements as a part of a socio-ecological concept. Intrapersonal developments of the pupils are measured by different questionnaires focusing on the individual social context of physical activity, nutrition habits and time allocation for electronic media. Results: Original values of Motor Ability tests show significant increase in endurance, coordination, velocity and force tasks. Also first changes for BMI distribution are explored in only one year intervention. Conclusion: First results indicate the possibility to counteract obesity and to increase levels of physical fitness and motor development by a multi-component progamme and a multi-sector approach of intervention. The longitudinal design of the study allows having a look on long-term effects. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Muino J.M.,Plant Research International | Muino J.M.,Wageningen University | Hoogstraat M.,Plant Research International | Hoogstraat M.,Hogeschool Leiden, University of Professional Education | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2011

Although several tools for the analysis of ChIP-seq data have been published recently, there is a growing demand, in particular in the plant research community, for computational resources with which such data can be processed, analyzed, stored, visualized and integrated within a single, user-friendly environment. To accommodate this demand, we have developed PRI-CAT (Plant Research International ChIP-seq analysis tool), a web-based workflow tool for the management and analysis of ChIP-seq experiments. PRI-CAT is currently focused on Arabidopsis, but will be extended with other plant species in the near future. Users can directly submit their sequencing data to PRI-CAT for automated analysis. A QuickLoad server compatible with genome browsers is implemented for the storage and visualization of DNA-binding maps. Submitted datasets and results can be made publicly available through PRI-CAT, a feature that will enable community-based integrative analysis and visualization of ChIP-seq experiments. Secondary analysis of data can be performed with the aid of GALAXY, an external framework for tool and data integration. PRI-CAT is freely available at http://www.ab.wur.nl/pricat. No login is required. © 2011 The Author(s).

Boerma M.A.M.,GGZ InGeest | Van Der Stel J.C.,Hogeschool Leiden, University of Professional Education | Van Amelsvoort T.H.,AMC Arkin | Linszen D.H.,University of Amsterdam | De Haan L.,University of Amsterdam
Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Gender differences play a role in the origin and course of schizophrenia. It has been hypothesised that the gonadal hormone, oestrogen, may possibly perform a protective function in the development of certain forms of schizophrenia. AIM: To review neurobiological hypotheses concerning the role of oestrogen in the development and course of schizophrenia. METHOD: The relevant literature was consulted with the help of PubMed, textbooks and bibliographic references; the search terms used were 'oestrogen', 'schizophrenia', 'gender', 'epigenetics', 'psychosis', 'women' and 'brain'. There were no restrictions with regards to the time-period. RESULTS: Neuro-imaging, animal experiments and hormone-therapy studies showed several effects of oestrogen in the field of epigenetics, morphology of the brain, interaction with neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. CONCLUSION: Oestrogen is an important link in a complex of factors that clearly play a role in the varying development of schizophrenia in men and women. So far, however, there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of a specific mechanism that would explain why oestrogen may perform a protective function in schizophrenia.

McDonnell L.A.,Leiden University | van Remoortere A.,Leiden University | de Velde N.,Hogeschool Leiden, University of Professional Education | van Zeijl R.J.M.,Leiden University | Deelder A.M.,Leiden University
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2010

Imaging MS now enables the parallel analysis of hundreds of biomolecules, spanning multiple molecular classes, which allows tissues to be described by their molecular content and distribution. When combined with advanced data analysis routines, tissues can be analyzed and classified based solely on their molecular content. Such molecular histology techniques have been used to distinguish regions with differential molecular signatures that could not be distinguished using established histologic tools. However, its potential to provide an independent, complementary analysis of clinical tissues has been limited by the very large file sizes and large number of discrete variables associated with imaging MS experiments. Here we demonstrate data reduction tools, based on automated feature identification and extraction, for peptide, protein, and lipid imaging MS, using multiple imaging MS technologies, that reduce data loads and the number of variables by >100×, and that highlight highly-localized features that can be missed using standard data analysis strategies. It is then demonstrated how these capabilities enable multivariate analysis on large imaging MS datasets spanning multiple tissues. © 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

Carriconde F.,Westmead Millennium Institute | Gilgado F.,Westmead Millennium Institute | Arthur I.,Medical Center | Ellis D.,SA Pathology at Womens and Childrens Hospital | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV). The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. However, an in-depth characterization of the Australian VGII population is still lacking. The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 54 clinical, veterinary and environmental VGII isolates from different parts of the Australian continent were studied. To place the Australian population in a global context, 17 isolates from North America, Europe, Asia and South America were included. Genetic variability was assessed using the newly adopted international consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, including seven genetic loci: CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and IGS1. Despite the overall clonality observed, the presence of MATa VGII isolates in Australia was demonstrated for the first time in association with recombination in MATα-MATa populations. Our results also support the hypothesis of a "smouldering" outbreak throughout the Australian continent, involving a limited number of VGII genotypes, which is possibly caused by a founder effect followed by a clonal expansion. Conclusions/Significance: The detection of sexual recombination in MATα-MATa population in Australia is in accordance with the natural life cycle of C. gattii involving opposite mating types and presents an alternative to the same-sex mating strategy suggested elsewhere. The potential for an Australian wide outbreak highlights the crucial issue to develop active surveillance procedures. © 2011 Carriconde et al.

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