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Rygaard M.,Technical University of Denmark | Godskesen B.,HOFOR | Jorgensen C.,DHI | Hoffmann B.,University of Aalborg
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Eaton introduces eVaptive electronic fuel tank venting system; reduced cost, complexity | Main | GKN Driveline develops new lightweight propshaft for Audi Q5; more compact, lighter, more efficient; MLB Evo » ABB has commissioned Denmark’s first urban energy storage system. The Lithium-ion based battery energy storage system (BESS) will be integrated with the local electricity grid in the new harbor district of Nordhavn, Copenhagen. The system has been commissioned for Radius, DONG Energy’s electrical grid division. The 630kW/460 kWh Battery Energy Storage System connected to main grid is capable of supplying electricity to 60 households for 24 hours. The battery storage solution will account for a significant part of the energy system, in which solar and wind energy will provide the majority of electricity production. Since renewable energy production is less predictable, the storage system will be a key element of energy supply. ABB’s flexible and modular system can be used for different functionalities such as peak load shaving and frequency response. The battery energy storage system is part of the “EnergyLab Nordhavn” project implemented in the Nordhavn district of Copenhagen. The project aims to develop and demonstrate energy solutions of the future. This includes providing valuable knowledge to help realize a more flexible and sustainable electricity grid with large amounts of renewable energy. These solutions are crucial for reaching the ambitious goal of turning Copenhagen into the world’s first carbon neutral capital in 2025. “EnergyLab Nordhavn – new urban energy infrastructures” is a four-year project (2015-19) developing future energy solutions. It uses Nordhavn as an urban living laboratory and demonstrates how electricity, district heating, energy-efficient solutions and electrical transport can be combined into an intelligent, flexible and highly-optimised energy system. The project partners include The Technical University of Denmark, City of Copenhagen, By & Havn, HOFOR, Radius, ABB, Balslev, Danfoss, Clean Charge, METROTHERM, Glen Dimplex and the PowerLab facilities. Funding for the project is supported by the Danish Energy Agency.


News Article | November 9, 2016
Site: www.rechargenews.com

Swedish utility Vattenfall won a bid in the tender for the giant 600MW Kriegers Flak array off Denmark with a bid of €49.90 ($55.34) per megawatt hour, the lowest-ever achieved in offshore wind. “The announcement is an essential milestone for our ambition to increase our production of renewable power. We are already the second largest offshore player globally," Vattenfall chief executive Magnus Hall said. "The winning bid of €49,9 per MWh proves that Vattenfall is highly competitive and brings down the costs for renewable energy." Located over 132 square kilometres of the Baltic Sea, the offshore array will be Denmark’s largest – completed, the park will contribute around 7% of Denmark’s electricity production. After Vattenfall’s winning the tender for the 350MW Danish near-shore project in September, this morning’s result is the company’s second major victory in as many months and adds to its reputation for smashing down prices. Fending off five competitors to win Kriegers Flak, Vattenfall have once again pulled out a record low bid. Kriegers Flak will be developed at a price per megawatt lower than that of the 350MW near-shore development, which only in September Vattenfall secured with a bid of €64/MWh. The price is also considerably lower than that of Dong Energy's winning bid of €72.70/MWh in the auction earlier this year for the about 700MW Borssele 1&2 zone off the Netherlands. Both the Vattenfall's near-shore win in Denmark and Dong's success at Borssele had already stirred a discussion about how low offshore wind prices can really go before rendering the sector unprofitable. But Vattenfall's wind chief Gunnar Groebler assures Recharge that the low winning bid was made possible by a mix of cost savings, optimizing construction schedules - hence also early revenues as well as the utility's O&M approach - and the company's view on how equipment will develop. Groebler adds, however, that Vattenfall hasn't approached the market on any equipment yet. "The project is profitable on its own merits," Groebler says. "The price is based on our assessment and based on our assumption, that the competition is fierce – which everybody expected given the pre-qualified parties." Development of Kriegers Flak is one of three major offshore wind developments – including the 400MW Horns Rev 3 project off the Danish North Sea coast and the Danish near-shore zones – that stem from the Danish parliament’s political energy agreement of 2012 outlining the nation’s transition to a green energy system and fossil free status by 2050. The extraordinary low winning bid at Kriegers Flak will be welcome news to advocates of the wind industry in Denmark who, over recent months, have faced an uphill battle in discussions with the government in Copenhagen over the development of new offshore wind projects. The heated dialogue between the wind industry and government – notably over the latter’s proposals for withdrawing from commitments to the energy agreement -- was enough to push Danish-German consortium HOFOR to withdraw from the Kriegers Flak tender, citing concerns over the financial stability of offshore wind development. Assurance for Kriegers Flak is not absolute. The concession is conditional upon agreement being reached by a majority of the Danish Parliament on financing of the premium for the offshore wind farm no later than 1 April 2017. On this point, Vattenfall’s bid price bodes in the favour of the development progressing smoothly. Indeed, the Danish Wind Industry Association report that the total cost of the park is about 59% lower than expected in 2012, as the energy agreement was made. That point wasn't lost on the government in Copenhagen, which hinted at favouring Kriegers Flak over the near shore zones. "The government can see a number of advantages in completing Kriegers Flak. State aid for Kriegers Flak is far less than expected in the Energy Agreement, in sharp contrast to nearshore wind turbines for which aid costs have increased significantly," said Lars Christian Lilleholt, minister for energy, utilities and climate. "Today we are making history, and Denmark is cementing its position as a global showcase and leading country for offshore wind power. The price of wind power from far out to sea is plummeting and offshore wind power has become more competitive." The minister added that a final decision regarding the tender will be clarified alongside negotiations in Denmark over state financing for renewable energy in the future after removal of the so-called public service obligation (PSO) -- the charge levied on consumer's electricity bills that has to date served as the primary funding mechanism for the nation's transition. Vattenfall's Groebler adds that Kriegers Flak has never been challenged by the Danish government the same way as the near shore projects. Kriegers Flak is planned to be linked to the nearby 288MW EnBW Baltic 2 offshore array in the German part of the Baltic Sea via the so-called Kriegers Flak Combined Grid Solution featuring a 400MW interconnection. The cross-border grid network in the future may also be linked to nearby Swedish offshore projects.


News Article | November 9, 2016
Site: www.rechargenews.com

Swedish utility Vattenfall won a bid in the tender for the giant 600MW Kriegers Flak array off Denmark with a bid of €49.90 ($55.34) per megawatt hour, the lowest-ever achieved in offshore wind. “The announcement is an essential milestone for our ambition to increase our production of renewable power. We are already the second largest offshore player globally," Vattenfall chief executive Magnus Hall said. "The winning bid of €49,9 per MWh proves that Vattenfall is highly competitive and brings down the costs for renewable energy." Located over 132 square kilometres of the Baltic Sea, the offshore array will be Denmark’s largest – completed, the park will contribute around 7% of Denmark’s electricity production. After Vattenfall’s winning the tender for the 350MW Danish near-shore project in September, this morning’s result is the company’s second major victory in as many months and adds to its reputation for smashing down prices. Fending off five competitors to win Kriegers Flak, Vattenfall have once again pulled out a record low bid. Kriegers Flak will be developed at a price per megawatt lower than that of the 350MW near-shore development, which only in September Vattenfall secured with a bid of €64/MWh. The price is also considerably lower than that of Dong Energy's winning bid of €72.70/MWh in the auction earlier this year for the about 700MW Borssele 1&2 zone off the Netherlands. Both the Vattenfall's near-shore win in Denmark and Dong's success at Borssele had already stirred a discussion about how low offshore wind prices can really go before rendering the sector unprofitable. But Vattenfall's wind chief Gunnar Groebler assures Recharge that the low winning bid was made possible by a mix of cost savings, optimizing construction schedules - hence also early revenues as well as the utility's O&M approach - and the company's view on how equipment will develop. Groebler adds, however, that Vattenfall hasn't approached the market on any equipment yet. "The project is profitable on its own merits," Groebler says. "The price is based on our assessment and based on our assumption, that the competition is fierce – which everybody expected given the pre-qualified parties." Development of Kriegers Flak is one of three major offshore wind developments – including the 400MW Horns Rev 3 project off the Danish North Sea coast and the Danish near-shore zones – that stem from the Danish parliament’s political energy agreement of 2012 outlining the nation’s transition to a green energy system and fossil free status by 2050. The extraordinary low winning bid at Kriegers Flak will be welcome news to advocates of the wind industry in Denmark who, over recent months, have faced an uphill battle in discussions with the government in Copenhagen over the development of new offshore wind projects. The heated dialogue between the wind industry and government – notably over the latter’s proposals for withdrawing from commitments to the energy agreement -- was enough to push Danish-German consortium HOFOR to withdraw from the Kriegers Flak tender, citing concerns over the financial stability of offshore wind development. Assurance for Kriegers Flak is not absolute. The concession is conditional upon agreement being reached by a majority of the Danish Parliament on financing of the premium for the offshore wind farm no later than 1 April 2017. On this point, Vattenfall’s bid price bodes in the favour of the development progressing smoothly. Indeed, the Danish Wind Industry Association report that the total cost of the park is about 59% lower than expected in 2012, as the energy agreement was made. That point wasn't lost on the government in Copenhagen, which hinted at favouring Kriegers Flak over the near shore zones. "The government can see a number of advantages in completing Kriegers Flak. State aid for Kriegers Flak is far less than expected in the Energy Agreement, in sharp contrast to nearshore wind turbines for which aid costs have increased significantly," said Lars Christian Lilleholt, minister for energy, utilities and climate. "Today we are making history, and Denmark is cementing its position as a global showcase and leading country for offshore wind power. The price of wind power from far out to sea is plummeting and offshore wind power has become more competitive." The minister added that a final decision regarding the tender will be clarified alongside negotiations in Denmark over state financing for renewable energy in the future after removal of the so-called public service obligation (PSO) -- the charge levied on consumer's electricity bills that has to date served as the primary funding mechanism for the nation's transition. Vattenfall's Groebler adds that Kriegers Flak has never been challenged by the Danish government the same way as the near shore projects. Kriegers Flak is planned to be linked to the nearby 288MW EnBW Baltic 2 offshore array in the German part of the Baltic Sea via the so-called Kriegers Flak Combined Grid Solution featuring a 400MW interconnection. The cross-border grid network in the future may also be linked to nearby Swedish offshore projects.


COPENHAGEN, 28-Nov-2016 — /EuropaWire/ — A new project, ’Water Smart Cities’, is developing software technologies to ensure better planning when cities in the future are hit by heavy rains and floods. Ramboll is involved in this project and contributes in particular with knowledge about decision support and valuation. Development of the new state-of-the-art water technology will give water companies and municipalities a new tool for overall planning and management of water – regardless of whether it comes from torrential rain or flooding. On this basis, a number of public and private stakeholders, together with Denmark’s largest water companies and Innovation Fund Denmark have launched the project, ’Water Smart Cities’. The name, ‘Water Smart Cities’  was chosen, because there will be focus in the future on use of new IT technology as a means of smarter management of water, to prevent harm to the environment and damage to buildings. The name also refers to tackling upcoming climate challenges in the best possible way. ”This project is based on how water moves through a city in event of torrential rainstorms. The trick is to lead the water around buildings and installations that are at risk, and instead to areas where the great quantities of water will cause no harm. There are not many vacant square meters in cities where water can go without doing damage, so all measures must be put to use to control water from cloudbursts,” says Christian Nyerup Nielsen, responsible for climate adaptation at Ramboll and member of the project steering committee. ”That’s why a new form of emergency action is needed, through the interaction between realistic forecasts, careful urban planning, management of drainage and various kinds of retention basins, to lead floodwater out of the cities, and ensure the least possible damage,” he adds. Innovation Fund Denmark, established by the Ministry of Higher Education and Science as an independent body for development of knowledge and technology, has granted DKK 12.1 million to the project, which in total is expected to cost DKK 28.3 million. Need for insight to support decisions Ramboll’s contribution consists mainly of a work package dealing with the development and application of general and transparent criteria, as a basis for decision support during the design and operation of drainage systems. ”Nowadays the possible methods for handling large amounts of water play an important role in the planning both natural and urban development projects. There are often many considerations and interests at stake, and therefore a growing need to make decisions on a clear basis. That’s why a large share of our contribution to the project consists of guidance to a PhD student, who will work with ’decision-support’ in the handling of urban water runoff and economic valuation of costs and benefits,” says Ida Bülow Gregersen from Ramboll, who has a PhD herself and will participate in project meetings. She and Christian Nyerup Nielsen are both pleased that the water sector is working together on a joint project in this area: ”Unlike a traditional research project, where the core research at universities weighs heaviest, the utilities play a major role in the ’Water Smart Cities’ project. The project has allocated many resources to knowledge-exchange across organisations. This means that tools developed during the project directly address the needs of the utilities. Thus, the project has the potential to strengthen both the Danish water sector as a whole and the individual organisation’s role abroad.” The project started in April 2016 and will run for four years. The participating organisations are: the Technical University of Denmark, DHI, Ramboll, Krüger, Danish Meteorological Institute, Greater Copenhagen Utility (HOFOR), Aarhus Water, WaterCenter South, BIOFOS, and Innovation Fund Denmark. You can read more about our services within climate adaptation and flood protection.


Mollerup A.L.,HOFOR | Mollerup A.L.,Technical University of Denmark | Mikkelsen P.S.,Technical University of Denmark | Sin G.,Technical University of Denmark
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2016

This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking it to a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters. Accordingly, two novel optimisation configurations are developed, where the optimisation either acts on the actuators or acts on the regulatory control layer. These two optimisation designs are evaluated on a sub-catchment of the sewer system in Copenhagen, and found to perform better than the existing control; a rule based expert system. On the other hand, compared with a regulatory control technique designed earlier in Mollerup et al. (2015), the optimisation showed similar performance with respect to minimising overflow volume. Hence for operation of small sewer systems, regulatory control strategies can offer promising potential and should be considered along more advanced strategies when identifying novel solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Mollerup A.L.,HOFOR | Mollerup A.L.,Technical University of Denmark | Mikkelsen P.S.,Technical University of Denmark | Thornberg D.,BIOFOS | Sin G.,Technical University of Denmark
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2015

A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation. To this end, four distinct modes of operation are identified (dry weather, filling, saturation and emptying) and for each of these the process gain matrix is found. Based on the gain matrices a controllability analysis is performed, to screen for suitable pairings between measurements and actuators in the case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed-loop testing. The methodology is a promising tool for systematic generation of solutions for sewer system control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Godskesen B.,Technical University of Denmark | Hauschild M.,Technical University of Denmark | Rygaard M.,Technical University of Denmark | Zambrano K.,HOFOR | Albrechtsen H.-J.,Technical University of Denmark
Water Research | Year: 2013

Four alternative cases for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental impact categories from the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The cases were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base case of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields situated near Copenhagen. The 4 cases studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further away from the city; And seawater desalination. The standard LCA showed that the Rain & stormwater harvesting case had the lowest overall environmental impact (81.9 μPET/m3) followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction (123.5-137.8 μPET/m3), and that desalination had a relatively small but still important increase in environmental impact (204.8 μPET/m3). Rain & stormwater harvesting and desalination had a markedly lower environmental impact compared to the base case, due to the reduced water hardness leading to e.g. a decrease in electricity consumption in households. For a relevant comparison, it is therefore essential to include the effects of water hardness when comparing the environmental impacts of water systems of different hardness. This study also emphasizes the necessity of including freshwater withdrawal respecting the relevant affected geographical scale, i.e. by focusing the assessment on the local groundwater catchments rather than on the regional catchments. Our work shows that freshwater withdrawal methods previously used on a regional level can also be applied to local groundwater catchments and integrated into the standard LCA as an impact category. When standard LCA is extended to include impacts of freshwater withdrawal, rain & stormwater and seawater (0.09-0.18 compared to 11.45-17.16 mPET/m3) were the resources resulting in least overall environmental impact. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mollerup A.L.,HOFOR | Mikkelsen P.S.,Technical University of Denmark | Thornberg D.,BIOFOS | Sin G.,Technical University of Denmark
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2016

The term Real Time Control (RTC) is widely used to describe all types of control systems in sewer systems. Today the term covers everything from the simplest to the most advanced types of control systems, making it difficult to communicate about sewer system control in a precise manner, as well as search and find specific types of control systems for comparison. Through a survey of implemented control systems in three EU cities today and with the perspectives of current research within the field of sewer system control, the needs for a new control system design framework is identified. With the basis of existing frameworks for control system design, a new time-scale dependent framework is proposed. We believe this comprehensive time-scale dependent framework can help water utilities to retrofit and design new control solutions and facilitate knowledge sharing about existing designs. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


News Article | October 25, 2016
Site: www.renewableenergyworld.com

Finnish Valmet and Danish HOFOR Energiproduktion A/S have signed a €150 million (US$163 million) contract for development of a state-of-the-art biomass combined heat and power plant for Copenhagen, Denmark.

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