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Rasmussen D.,Hoersholm | Slothuus T.,Hoersholm | Petersen G.I.,Hoersholm | Madsen T.,Hoersholm
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2011

Exposure and effect assessments including risk characterisation of the surfactants alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxysulphates and linear alkylbenzene sulphonates used in household detergents were conducted. Predicted environmental concentrations were calculated by use of traditional methods and detailed transport and fate modelling. Predicted no effect concentrations were derived from the available information on the acute and chronic aquatic toxicity. Risk characterisation ratios were defined as the ratio of the predicted environmental concentration to the predicted no effect concentration. Risk characterisation ratios were calculated for fresh water and marine water and were below 1. This indicates that based on the methods employed in this study the use of alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxysulphates and linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in household detergents does not appear to present a risk to the aquatic environment. © Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich. Source


Madsen T.,Hoersholm | Slothuus T.,Hoersholm | Petersen G.I.,Hoersholm | Rasmussen D.,Hoersholm
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2011

Exposure and effect assessment including risk characterisation of enzymes used in household detergents were conducted. Predicted environmental concentrations were calculated by use of traditional methods and detailed transport and fate modelling. Predicted no effect concentrations were derived from the results of ecotoxicological studies conducted with subtilisin and other available information on the acute and chronic aquatic toxicity. Risk characterisation ratios were defined as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted no effect concentration. Risk characterisation ratios were calculated for fresh and marine water and were found to be between 0. 0002 and 0.06, i.e. all well below 1. This shows that under the given conditions, the use of enzymes in household detergents does not present a risk to the aquatic environment. © Carl Hanser Publisher. Source


Rask C.,Hoersholm | Lund L.,ALK Abello A S | Lund G.,Hoersholm | Heydenreich B.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy | Year: 2012

Background: Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT) has proven sustained clinical efficacy against allergy. The recommended regimen for SCIT is a gradual updosing over a period of weeks. Commonly, in commercial products for SCIT, the specific allergen is formulated with an adjuvant, most often in the form of aluminium hydroxide (AlOH). It has been shown that allergen-specific IgG antibodies are induced as a result of successful SIT. Objective: To investigate the possibility of optimizing the formulation of AlOH-based grass-pollen allergy vaccines for SCIT in a way that allows for shorter updosing regimens while maintaining the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Methods: Mice were immunized with various concentrations of Phleum pratense (Phl p) allergen extract and AlOH or a fixed dilution of the maintenance doses of one conventional and one alternatively formulated vaccine. The kinetics of Phl p-specific IgG antibody responses in serum and spleen T cell responses were determined. Allergenicity, measured as the ability of the formulations to activate human basophils, was also determined. In addition, human T cell responses and the expression of dendritic cell surface markers after vaccine challenge in vitro were analysed. Results: Specific IgG antibody responses were shown to depend on the AlOH concentration, but not on the allergen concentrations. The immunogenicity of the conventional formulation and the alternative formulation was shown to be similar with regard to the in vivo-induced IgG and T cell responses. In contrast, the allergenicity of the alternative formulation was significantly reduced compared with the conventional formulation. Conclusion: The optimization of the formulation allows for administration of a lower dose of allergen while maintaining the immunogenicity of the product and at the same time reducing allergenicity. Clinical Relevance: This study indicates that the optimization of the allergen and the adjuvant formulation could benefit the safety/efficacy profile and allow for shorter updosing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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