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Geisenheim, Germany

Szolnoki G.,Hochschule Geisenheim University | Hoffmann D.,Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim University
International Journal of Wine Business Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test the segmentation based on the usage of sales channels and to compare the segments with each other in terms of socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using representative data collected in Germany through a face-to-face interview. 2,000 German consumers answered questions towards the usage of different sales channels when purchasing wine as well as socio-demographic and other behavioural questions. A hierarchical cluster analysis was run, to classify the respondents into segments. Findings: The results illustrate the usefulness of this kind of segmentation and show significant differences between the six consumer groups: discount-customers, food-retail-customers, supermarket-customers, cellar-door-customers, wine-store-customers and multichannel-customers. These segments differ in their socio-demographic as well as in their behavioural structure. Furthermore, the six segments could be split into two groups depending on their average purchase value: a basic group and a premium group. Practical implications: This segmentation provides an analysing tool for the German retailers, which is able to identify the loyal and potential consumers of the different sales channels. Originality/value: This segmentation was conducted using the purchase activity of German consumers in different sales channels. This segmentation approach has been never used to identify, describe and classify wine consumers. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Buckel I.,Schrodinger | Molitor D.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Liermann J.C.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Sandjo L.P.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 3 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2013

Phenguignardic acid was recently described as a phytotoxic secondary metabolite from submerged cultures of the grape black rot fungus Guignardia bidwellii. Since the production rate of this natural product in submerged culture is very low, fermentation optimisation was carried out. The optimisation of cultivation conditions led to the identification of seven secondary metabolites, structurally related to guignardic acid, a known secondary metabolite from Guignardia species containing a dioxolanone moiety. All metabolites presented here have not been described to date and are presumably biosynthesised via deamination products of amino acids, such as phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, and alanine. Four of the seven compounds showed phytotoxic activity. Based on the structures determined by NMR spectroscopy a preliminary structure activity relationship indicated a free carboxyl group as presumably required for the phytotoxic activity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Fanourakis D.,Julich Research Center | Briese C.,Julich Research Center | Max J.F.J.,Julich Research Center | Max J.F.J.,Hochschule Geisenheim University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Methods | Year: 2014

Background: Light curtain arrays (LC), a recently introduced phenotyping method, yield a binary data matrix from which a shoot silhouette is reconstructed. We addressed the accuracy and applicability of LC in assessing leaf area and maximum height (base to the highest leaf tip) in a phenotyping platform. LC were integrated to an automated routine for positioning, allowing in situ measurements. Two dicotyledonous (rapeseed, tomato) and two monocotyledonous (maize, barley) species with contrasting shoot architecture were investigated. To evaluate if averaging multiple view angles helps in resolving self-overlaps, we acquired a data set by rotating plants every 10° for 170°. To test how rapid these measurements can be without loss of information, we evaluated nine scanning speeds. Leaf area of overlapping plants was also estimated to assess the possibility to scale this method for plant stands.Results: The relation between measured and calculated maximum height was linear and nearly the same for all species. Linear relations were also found between plant leaf area and calculated pixel area. However, the regression slope was different between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Increasing the scanning speed stepwise from 0.9 to 23.4 m s-1 did not affect the estimation of maximum height. Instead, the calculated pixel area was inversely proportional to scanning speed. The estimation of plant leaf area by means of calculated pixel area became more accurate by averaging consecutive silhouettes and/or increasing the angle between them. Simulations showed that decreasing plant distance gradually from 20 to 0 cm, led to underestimation of plant leaf area owing to overlaps. This underestimation was more important for large plants of dicotyledonous species and for small plants of monocotyledonous ones.Conclusions: LC offer an accurate estimation of plant leaf area and maximum height, while the number of consecutive silhouettes that needs to be averaged is species-dependent. A constant scanning speed is important for leaf area estimations by using LC. Simulations of the effect of varying plant spacing gave promising results for method application in sets of partly overlapping plants, which applies also to field conditions during and after canopy closure for crops sown in rows. © 2014 Fanourakis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kalili K.M.,Stellenbosch University | Vestner J.,Stellenbosch University | Vestner J.,Hochschule Geisenheim University | Stander M.A.,Stellenbosch University | De Villiers A.,Stellenbosch University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Despite the significant importance of tannins in viticulture and enology, relatively little is known about the detailed chemical composition of these molecules. This is due to challenges associated with the accurate analytical determination of the highly structurally diverse proanthocyanidins which comprise tannins. In this contribution, we address this limitation by demonstrating how online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) can be exploited as a powerful analytical approach for the detailed characterization of grape seed tannins. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) were employed in the two dimensions to provide complementary information in terms of separation according to hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, respectively. Online coupling of HILIC × RP-LC with fluorescence detection and electrospray ionization MS delivered high resolution analysis in a practical analysis time, while allowing selective detection and facilitating compound identification. Time-of-flight (TOF) MS provided high acquisition rates and sensitivity coupled to accurate mass information, which allowed detection of procyanidins up to a degree of polymerization (DP) of 16 and a degree of galloylation up to 8 in a red grape seed extract. This analytical methodology promises to shed new light on these important grape constituents and potentially on their evolution during wine production. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Galidevara S.,Andhra University | Reineke A.,Hochschule Geisenheim University | Koduru U.D.,Andhra University
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2016

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin is commercially available as a bio insecticide. The expression of three genes previously identified to have a role in pathogenicity in in vitro studies was validated in vivo in three lepidopteran insects infected with B. bassiana. Expression of all three genes was observed in all the tested insects starting from 48 or 72 h to 10 d post infection corroborating their role in pathogenicity. We suggest that it is essential to test the expression of putative pathogenicity genes both in vitro and in vivo to understand their role in different insect species. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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