Wyss U.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int |
Dettling T.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Reidy B.,Hochschule fur Agrar
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016
Silage qualities in the mountain area: a field study Silage preparation is an important feed-conservation method in the mountain area of Switzerland. To determine the ensilability of various typical plant populations in the mountain area, four plant populations were investigated on a laboratory scale, and grass silages from 31 commercial farms from the Ybrig-Einsiedeln mountain region were collected and analysed. According to the fermentability coefficients from the green-forage samples, the four plant populations investigated proved to have good ensiling properties. There were, however, differences in silage quality, with a high proportion of herbs not proving disadvantageous for the production of a high-quality silage. The quality of the silages from the commercial farms varied dramatically. In addition to very good silages, there were also silages of poor and very poor quality. This was primarily attributable to the increased butyric acid content, which was partly the result of the earthy impurities. On average, the silages reached an NEL content of 5.5 MJ per kg dry matter (DM). The main reason for these low values were high fibre contents attributable to a late utilisation stage. © 2016, AMTRA - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All Rights Reserved.
Use of economic damage thresholds, forecasting systems and warning services in Switzerland [Anwendung der bekämpfungsschwellen und warndienste in der Schweiz] [L'utilizzo di soglie di tolleranza e servizi di previsione e d’allarme in Svizzera]
Ramseier H.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Lebrun M.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Steinger T.,Institute For Pflanzenbauwissenschaften Ipb
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016
According to Direct Payment regulations, Swiss farmers are obliged to take into account economic damage thresholds and the recommendations of forecasting and warning services before taking phytosanitary measures. In order to assess how well these requirements were being fulfilled in arable farming, farmers and agricultural contractors were anonymously surveyed in 2013-2014. Out of 477 returned questionnaires, 456 were evaluated. The results showed that control thresholds for weeds and grasses were only considered to a limited extent. Lack of time and a known weed infestation were given as reasons for this. Control thresholds were better respected in the treatment of disease. Most commonly, the control threshold was applied in treating leaf spot in sugar beets. Eighty-one per cent of farmers stated that they always or often used the control threshold for leaf spot. Least attention was paid to the control threshold in the treatment of Rhizoctonia in potatoes: 47% of respondents never or rarely used the threshold. The control thresholds were most often used when treating pests, especially pests with a high potential for causing damage, and for which the control threshold could be monitored easily and precisely, with little time expenditure. This was the case with pollen beetle: 92.6% of respondents stated that they always or often applied the threshold. The existing forecasting systems such as Phytopre and Fusaprog were unknown to many farmers and therefore not used. The warning services, on the other hand, were used by many farmers: 87% said that they always or often used the warning services in the trade press. The cantonal advisory services were also valued as a source of information. The study shows the areas in which there is still additional potential for reducing risks caused by the use of pesticides. © 2016, AMTRA - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All Rights Reserved.
Winckler L.,Landwirtschaftliches Institute des Kantons Freiburg Grangeneuve LIG |
Cutullic E.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Aeby P.,Landwirtschaftliches Institute des Kantons Freiburg Grangeneuve LIG
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012
Milk output per hectare of forage surface area is a means of measuring the efficiency of dairy production. The aim of this study is to identify which factors are decisive in the variation of surface-area productivity practised in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The analysis is based on a survey of 266 dairy farms which was conducted during the period 2002-2009. Altitude is, as expected, a significant structural factor, constraining milk output per hectare because of lower grassland yield and quality. Lowland farms which use maize silage and moderate amounts of concentrate are, on average, more efficient. Some of the grass-based farms achieve similar levels of efficiency, but many still have room for improvement. Although high efficiency is attainable with individually-medium-yielding cows, a positive correlation was observed between milk output per hectare and cows' forage-based milk yield. In conclusion, it appears that irrespective of local pedoclimatic factors and type of system, surface-area productivity is highly dependent on farmers' ability to optimise their own production system.
Pfannkuch M.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Zabel A.,Hochschule fur Agrar
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2014
In 2012, almost 96% of all Swiss wood exports were delivered into the European Union (EU). Since March 3rd, 2013, these exports are subject to the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR). Besides the Voluntary Partnership Agreements, this regulation constitutes the second policy package under the EU Forest Law Enforcement, Gover nance and Trade Action Plan (EU-FLEGT). The first part of this paper discusses the aims of the new timber regulation as a measure to combat illegal logging and illegal timber trade. The second part builds on expert interviews that were conducted with representatives of the industry, ministries, inter-trade organizations, as well as a politician and summarizes first experiences since the implementation of the policy as well as expected implications for the Swiss timber export sector. Moreover, four possible courses of action for Switzerland that were raised in the expert interviews are discussed: 1) integrating the EU Timber Regulation into the regulation on the declaration of wood and wood products, 2) creating a Swiss Timber Regulation in the course of the revision of the environmental protection law, 3) proactively providing information while avoiding a change of laws, and 4) a government guarantee for Swiss wood.
Sutter M.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Nemecek T.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon |
Thomet P.,Hochschule fur Agrar
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2013
Swiss dairy farms must increasingly cope with climate protection, environmental conservation and the use of limited resources. In the context of the Hohenrain comparison of dairy production systems, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts was conducted using the Swiss Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment method. The environmental strengths and weaknesses of seasonal full-pasture and indoor feeding systems were compared. The indoor herd performed significantly better than the pasture herd in three of thirteen impact categories. In contrast, the pasture herd performed better in seven of thirteen impact categories. A considerable weakness in the pasture herd was its higher methane emissions per kilogram of energy-corrected milk and the one-and-a-half times greater land requirement per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. The indoor herd had its main weaknesses in deforestation, the phosphorous and potassium resource requirements and higher ecotoxicity. The main causes for poor performance in these categories were maize and soybean meal.
Opti-milk project: Economic efficiency of the high-output strategy – Results from 2000 to 2010 [Projekt Optimilch: Wirtschaftlichkeit der Hochleistungsstrategie - Ergebnisse 2000 bis 2010] [Progetto Optimilk: Redditivita della strategia di alta prestazione - Risultati dal 2000 al 2010]
Blattler T.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Durgiai B.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Knapp L.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Haller T.,Therese Haller Agrarokonomische Analysen
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2015
In the project Opti-Milk (2000–2004), the technical feasibility of the high output strategy for dairy farms on the Swiss Plateau was shown. The good economic prospects of the strategy based on budgets and predicted costs during the project could be verified with an analysis of the total costs on dairy farms from 1999 to 2011. The strategy resulted in a significant reduction in production costs per kg of milk through increasing the amount of milk and thus significantly improving labor productivity. Economies of scale also have led to a reduction in overhead costs per kg of milk. At the end of the observation period, three out of seven high-output farms had earned an income well above the Swiss average. This strategy can be economically attractive in the lowland area of Switzerland, although the heads of farms will face significant challenges, which are presented in this paper. © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.
Zabel A.,Forschungsgruppe Fur Internationale Waldwirtschaft und Klimawandel |
Dittgen A.,Hochschule Fur Agrar
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2014
In Switzerland, private forest ownership was traditionally closely tied to agricultural farms. With the ongoing structural change in the agricultural sector, there is a growing number of private forest owners who do not have an agricultural background. In order to design policy measures, e.g. to increase wood harvest in private forests, it is necessary to understand the aims and motivations of these owners. This paper investigates to what extent private forest owners without an agricultural background differ from those with such a background. The analysis builds on empirical data collected in a representative, mail survey among private forest owners in the canton of Bern. Contrary to a wide-spread assertion that forest owners without an agricultural background have little forest-specific knowledge and lack interest in their forests, this study finds that they are often interested and estimate to have a high degree of knowledge. In accordance with studies conducted in Austria and Germany the results show that to forest owners without an agricultural background generating income from their forests is often a secondary goal. Leisure and recreation are often given higher priority.
Burgi P.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Pauli B.,Hochschule fur Agrar
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen | Year: 2013
For over two decades, the majority of Swiss forest enterprises have been confronted with financial losses. One of the main reasons for this is the general diminishing of revenues from timber sales since the 1980s. Moreover, Swiss forest enterprises have not managed to reduce the most important matter of expenses - the timber harvesting costs - to a similar extent. In comparison, unit costs from timber harvest in Switzerland are more than twice as high as those in the neighboring countries. This study analyzes the cause-and-effect relationships that lead to the high timber harvesting costs in Swiss forest enterprises. Building on that, possibilities of reducing these costs are proposed. The study is based on the results obtained through the Swiss Forestry Holding Network (HDN). The results have been systematically analyzed, the cause-and-effect relationships graphically depicted, and the gained knowledge has been discussed with experts. In essence, the results from the HDN suggest that the high timber harvesting costs are primarily a consequence of the structural situation of the Swiss forest enterprises. The over-proportionally high number of employees and large machinery parks allocated to each of the management areas are inevitably leading to high timber harvesting costs, and thus to suboptimal timber harvesting methods. Subsequently, this is all giving rise to an unfavorable cost situation. Furthermore, economies of scale can hardly be reached among the large numbers of relatively small forest enterprise management areas producing low usage quantities. In essence, the most important approaches to reducing the timber harvesting costs are the more frequent involvement of specialized forest services for harvesting, and measures that lead to the enlargement of the management areas. In order to reduce timber harvesting costs and by that improve operation results, a critical reflection of the current forest management strategy is unavoidable.
Hochuli A.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Huber M.,Hochschule fur Agrar |
Hofstetter P.,Berufsbildungszentrum Natur und Ernahrung Schupfheim BBZN
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016
Knowledge of guest needs is the prerequisite for the market-oriented design of tourist offerings. Using cluster analysis, the guest segments (clusters) for agritourism in Switzerland were first identified in terms of distinct needs. The classification of the six clusters was based on a survey of 655 potential guests of agritourism enterprises. The six guest segments indicated clear preferences mainly for leisure activities on the farm and in the region. In contrast, the differences between the clusters with regard to lodging and board offerings were less marked. © 2016, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of Zürich, University of Bern, SUISAG and Hochschule fur Agrar
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde | Year: 2016
In the present study, risk factors for the use of oral antibiotics in weaned piglets were collected on 112 pig farms by a personal questionaire. The most common indication for an antibiotic group therapy was diarrhoea, and the most frequently used antibiotic was Colistin. On average, 27.33 daily doses in the control farms and 387.21 daily doses in the problem farms per 1000 weaners were administered on a given day. The significant risk factors in the multivariate model were poor hygiene in the water supply of suckling piglets, less than two doses of prestarter feed daily, lack of an all-in-and-all-out production system in weaners, no herd book performance data analysis, and less than two of the legally prescribed veterinary visits per year. Furthermore, the treatment incidence of weaners for oral antibiotics was calculated on the basis of the drug inventory. This study provides evidence that the use of oral antibiotics in weaners can be reduced by interventions in hygiene and management.