Mingrui W.,Hubei University of Automotive Technology |
Thanh Sa N.,Hubei University of Automotive Technology |
Thanh Sa N.,Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport |
Turkson R.F.,Hubei University of Automotive Technology |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Energy Institute | Year: 2017
The influence of variable water injection by mass on the performance and emission characteristics of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine under light load conditions has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The study involved the injection of water into the cylinder at an angle of 640 °CA over an injection duration of 10 °CA. Gasoline was directly injected into the cylinder with a fixed injection timing duration starting from 660 °CA to 680 °CA and determined the flow rate of fuel. The results indicated that a 15% water injection by mass used together with fuel gave the best engine performance due to the increase in the indicated mean effective pressure and efficiency resulting from the cooling of certain parts of engine. Water injection also demonstrated a decrease in the NOx emissions (ppm), as well as soot emissions. © 2016 Energy Institute
Akple M.S.,Ho Polytechnic |
Low J.,Wuhan University of Technology |
Wageh S.,King Abdulaziz University |
Al-Ghamdi A.A.,King Abdulaziz University |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2015
As a clean and renewable solar H2-production system to address the increasing global environmental crisis and energy demand, photocatalytic hydrogen production from water splitting using earth abundant materials has received a lot of attention. In this study, WS2-graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were prepared using WO3 and thiourea as precursors through a gas-solid reaction. Different amount of WS2 were loaded on g-C3N4 to form the heterostructures and the composite samples exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 production under visible light. The composite sample with 0.01wt% WS2 exhibited the highest H2-production rate of 101μmolg-1 h-1, which was even better than that of the Pt-C3N4 sample with the same loading content. The high photocatalytic activity was attributed to the formation of heterojunction between g-C3N4 and WS2 cocatalyst which allowed for effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers. This work showed the possibility for the utilization of low cost WS2 as an efficient cocatalyst to promote the photocatalytic H2 production of g-C3N4. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Keraita B.,International Water Management Institute IWMI |
Keraita B.,Copenhagen University |
Jensen P.K.M.,Copenhagen University |
Konradsen F.,Copenhagen University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2013
This study was done in four rural communities in Ghana to assess uptake of household latrines. A total of 156 household interviews, 16 focus group discussions and 8 in-depth interviews with key informants were conducted. Study findings show that only 8.5% of households were using improved sanitation facilities with more than 75% of the households relying on open defecation and communal trench latrines. Knowledge of technological options was very limited and the cost for preferred latrines was unaffordable. Though health-related benefits motivated household latrine uptake, those related to personal security, privacy, social status and convenience were ranked higher. Sanitation uptake was constrained mainly by finances, poor sanitation promotion and general biophysical factors. High costs of latrine construction could be reduced by introducing cheaper technological options, using low-cost construction materials and labor contributions from households. Financing models like microcredit financing can also be explored and adapted for use in Ghana. We recommend the use of approaches aimed at behavior change while giving households a range of technological options such as community led total sanitation (CLTS). Hence, despite the low coverage of improved sanitation in rural Ghana, there exist real opportunities to accelerate sanitation uptake. © IWA Publishing 2013.
Buadi D.K.,Ho Polytechnic |
Anaman K.A.,University of Ghana |
Anaman K.A.,Macquarie University |
Kwarteng J.A.,University Of Cape Coast
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2013
Since independence in 1957, the provision of major support services for farmers such as physical infrastructure and research services for the agricultural sector in Ghana has been the preserve of the government. However, with respect to agricultural credit, extension and marketing services, there has been a mix of both public and private sector participation with public services declining in quantity over the period of structural adjustment programmes in the country beginning in 1983-2006. Over this 24-year period, government involvement in extension delivery to farmers declined. Since 2007 the level of government support for the agricultural sector has increased considerably with government support for investment in agriculture outpacing its recurrent expenditures for the sector. The decline of government extension delivery led to an increased role for not-for-profit organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in supporting farmers. We assessed the quality of extension services provided by four NGOs in two municipalities of the Central Region of Ghana: Mfantseman and Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (KEAA). The study was based on random sampling of farmers with the gender used as the key attribute in the choice of the optimal random sample. Beneficiary farmers assessed six main services provided by NGOs, namely information support, input supply, training, technology transfer, credit and monitoring and evaluation of extension activities. Farmers generally perceived the services to be relevant to their operations. However, they had mixed opinions concerning the services with respect to their adequacy, availability and their timeliness of supply. Monitoring and evaluation of extension activities by NGOs was generally acceptable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Topriska E.,Brunel University |
Kolokotroni M.,Brunel University |
Dehouche Z.,Brunel University |
Novieto D.T.,Ho Polytechnic |
Wilson E.A.,University of Technology, Jamaica
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016
This paper evaluates one option to replace traditional cooking fuels in developing economies with a flexible, modular and clean solution of solar hydrogen, based on a numerical and experimentally tested system to address technical and safety issues. The study focuses on Ghana, Jamaica and Indonesia as examples of developing economies using fossil fuels for domestic cooking. Statistical analyses are performed and the domestic cooking demand profiles are created for these countries based on available data and a specific quantitative study in Ghana. The derived cooking demand profiles are used to size solar hydrogen plant case-studies for rural communities based on a TRNSYS numerical model. The results indicate that hydrogen plant sizing and management satisfy annual cooking demands of the communities which are 621.6 kg H2 for Jamaica, 631 kg H2 for Indonesia and 785 kg H2 for Ghana. The effect of the weather data on the simulation is estimated by comparison between TMY and recent weather data for Jamaica. Finkelstein-Schafer statistics indicate differences between the composite and recent weather data, but these prove to have minor effect on simulation results, with 0.9% difference in hydrogen generation. The potential to establish solar hydrogen plants in the countries is further evaluated by creating novel solar hydrogen potential maps. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Akpalu W.,Farmingdale State College |
Normanyo A.K.,Ho Polytechnic
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2014
Capture fish stocks are facing an increasing threat of extinction, partly due to the use of illegal fishing methods. In developing coastal countries - where fishing activities are the mainstay of the population along the coast - livelihoods are being directly threatened. Although a number of studies exist on fishing regulations and those who violate them, little has been done on the relationship between intrinsic catch potentials/fishing skills and illegal fishing behavior. Using data on violations of light attraction regulation among small-scale fishers in Ghana, our results show that the risk of punishment, the amount of fishing experience, the skipper's age, and religious norms all influence the decision to violate fishing regulations. Most importantly, we found that violators and non-violators have different fishing skills. Consequently, policies targeting illegal fishing must focus on equalizing efficiency and/or fishing skills among the fishermen as well as on traditional variables that influence violation decisions. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Aglina M.K.,Ho Polytechnic |
Agbejule A.,Vaasa University of Applied Sciences |
Nyamuame G.Y.,Ho Polytechnic
Energy Policy | Year: 2016
Energy has become the main driver for development as industries grow, agricultural sectors become more modernized, economies boom and countries become wealthy. There are still vast majority of people living under the poverty line especially in the ECOWAS region. The purpose of this study is to explore how improvements in energy access can be a key driver in economic development and progress in the ECOWAS region. Data for the study was obtained from the database of the World Bank. A regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationships between energy access and development indicators. The paper suggests the need for policy makers in the ECOWAS region to focus on targets, such as household access, consumption of electricity, and ease of use instead on supply targets that focus merely on physical coverage. A case on how Ghana is improving energy access is presented. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Nyatuame M.,Ho Polytechnic |
Nartey S.,Ho Polytechnic
International Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2013
Moisture retention affects soil quality and hence plant growth. Cocoa Husk Powder (CHP) and Cow dung serves as soil amendment agents. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Cocoa Husk Powder (CHP) and Cow dung on soil physical properties (i.e., moisture content and soil infiltration rate) at Ho Polytechnic demonstration field. Four beds each were raised for moisture content and infiltration rates, respectively using sandy soils. Equal volumes of water and different quantities of CHP and Cow dung were applied to the beds using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). In all, 12 soil samples each were taken from both CHP and Cow dung treatment beds for analysis of moisture content using a gravimetric method. Double infiltrometer test was used to determine the infiltration rates. The results indicated that, for the CHP soil bed, treatment 1 (no CHP) had mean moisture content of 4.5%, treatment 2 (mixed with 2 kg CHP) had 7.0%, treatment 3 (mixed with 4 kg CHP) had 8.4% and treatment 4 (mixed with 6 kg CHP) had 13% while that of the corresponding cow dung treatments were 4.4, 5.4, 7 and 11%, respectively. The basic infiltration rates recorded were 36, 33 and 21 mm h_1 (with a cumulative infiltration of 58, 52 and 45 mm) for CHP for treatments 2, 3 and 4 while that of cow dung correspondingly were 39, 33 and 27 mm h_1 (with a cumulative infiltration of 69, 61 and 55 mm), respectively. The result shows that the more you applied the cocoa husk powder, the greater the moisture content and less infiltration rate. It is therefore recommended that further studies on effect of CHP on chemical properties of soils with salt problems be ascertained. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.
Mensah C.,Ho Polytechnic |
Agboka J.A.,Ho Polytechnic |
Azilla-Gbettor E.M.,Ho Polytechnic
Journal of Foodservice Business Research | Year: 2016
This article empirically investigates the factors that determine diners’ decision-making in choosing to eat at traditional catering establishments in Ho, Ghana. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of 199 patrons selected from five traditional catering establishments. Following the use of descriptive and inferential statistics, hygienic and cleanliness factors were found to be critical in the selection process while the quantity of food and pricing were least important. A significant proportion of women compared to men preferred eating at home to buying food prepared out-of-home. Craft and trade workers were more likely to eat food prepared out-of-home than salaried workers. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
Biscoff R.,Ho Polytechnic |
Akple M.,Ho Polytechnic |
Turkson R.,Ho Polytechnic |
Klomegah W.,Ho Polytechnic
Energy Policy | Year: 2012
The use of LPG as automotive fuel is on the increase worldwide. In developing countries such as Ghana, the rudimental way of operating LPG cars is of a national concern since there is no clear cut framework within which they function. This paper presents a scenario of development from conversion of gasoline to LPG fuelling system in cars in Ho, Ghana. Data were collected through survey (100 questionnaires), in-depth interviews (2), Focus Group Discussions (3) and direct observations. The result shows LPG conversion is carried out by the local informally trained mechanics especially for Taxis because of its low consumption resulting in more profit. Conversion takes 1-2 day with an average estimated cost of GH□ 450 cedis ($300). The LPG policy in Ghana focuses on domestic purposes hence the fuel being heavily subsidised. Challenges' being faced by the autogas market in Ghana includes; no clear cut policy, low number of refuelling stations, lack of standard conversion and installation kits and unprofessional LPG installers. In order for government to benefit from LPG as automotive fuel, coherent autogas policy should be formulated ensuring the availability of the LPG with price affordability as in the case of gasoline and diesel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.