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Vivot K.,DIATHEC | Langlois A.,DIATHEC | Bietiger W.,DIATHEC | Dal S.P.,DIATHEC | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Since their isolation until implantation, pancreatic islets suffer a major stress leading to the activation of inflammatory reactions. The maintenance of controlled inflammation is essential to preserve survival and function of the graft. Identification and targeting of pathway(s) implicated in post-transplant detrimental inflammatory events, is mandatory to improve islet transplantation success. We sought to characterize the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators during islet culture with a focus on Heme oxygenase (HO-1) and Toll-like receptors-4 signaling pathways. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status were evaluated after 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours of culture through TLR-4, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, CCL-2 and IL-6 secretion, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (Dihydroethidine staining, DHE) and macrophages migration. To identify the therapeutic target, TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095) and HO-1 activation (cobalt protoporphyrin,CoPP) was performed. Activation of NF kB signaling pathway was also investigated. After isolation and during culture, pancreatic islet exhibited a proinflammatory and prooxidant status (increase levels of TLR-4, COX-2, CCL-2, IL-6, and ROS). Activation of HO-1 or inhibition of TLR-4 decreased inflammatory status and oxidative stress of islets. Moreover, the overexpression of HO-1 induced NFkB phosphorylation while the inhibition of TLR-4 had no effect NFkB activation. Finally, inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathway induced a reduction of macrophages migration. These data demonstrated that the TLR-4 signaling pathway is implicated in early inflammatory events leading to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status of islets in vitro. Moreover, these results provide the mechanism whereby the benefits of HO-1 target in TLR-4 signaling pathway. HO-1 could be then an interesting target to protect islets before transplantation. © 2014 Vivot et al. This This work was supported by ASDIA (Assistance Service DIAbè te), the REUNICA Group and the foundation "Vaincre le Diabè te". The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Source


Perrot A.,Laboratoire Central DImmunologie | Perrot A.,Laboratoire dImmunologie | Pionneau C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pionneau C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 11 more authors.
Blood Cancer Journal | Year: 2012

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a clonal B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of post-germinal center nature. Despite the fact that the precise molecular pathway(s) leading to WM remain(s) to be elucidated, a hallmark of the disease is the absence of the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we compared proteomic profiles of WM cells with that of other LPDs. We were able to demonstrate that WM constitutes a unique proteomic entity as compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and marginal zone lymphoma. Statistical comparisons of protein expression levels revealed that a few proteins are distinctly expressed in WM in comparison with other LPDs. In particular we observed a major downregulation of the double strand repair protein Ku70 (XRCC6); confirmed at both the protein and RNA levels in an independent cohort of patients. Hence, we define a distinctive proteomic profile for WM where the downregulation of Ku70-a component of the non homologous end-joining pathway-might be relevant in disease pathophysiology. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Ann Chai L.Y.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Ann Chai L.Y.,Nijmegen Institute for Infection | Ann Chai L.Y.,National University of Singapore | Kullberg B.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

An improved number of anti-fungal drugs are currently available for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA). While serial galactomannan index (GMI) measurement can be used to monitor response to treatment, the extent to which different antifungal regimens can affect galactomannan levels is unknown. In 147 IA patients receiving either voriconazole (VCZ) or conventional amphotericin B (CAB) in a multicentre clinical trial, we performed post-hoc analyses of GMI trends in relation to outcomes. The generalized estimation equations approach was used to estimate changes in the effect size for GMI over time within patients. Patients who received VCZ primary therapy and had good treatment response 12 weeks later showed earlier decreases in GMI values at Week 1 and Week 2 (p = 0.001 and 0.046 respectively) as compared to patients who only received CAB. At end-of-randomized therapy (EORT), which was a pre-set secondary assessment point for all patients who switched from randomized primary (CAB or VCZ) to an alternative anti-fungal drug, treatment failure was associated with increasing GMI at Weeks 1 and 2 in CAB-primary treated patients (p = 0.022 and 0.046 respectively). These distinct trends highlight the variations in GMI kinetics with the use of different anti-fungal drugs and their implications in relation to IA treatment response. © 2014 Chai et al. Source


Livolsi A.,University of Strasbourg | Livolsi A.,Ho Pitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg | Niederhoffer N.,University of Strasbourg | Dali-Youcef N.,University of Strasbourg | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Alterations in muscarinic receptor expression and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity have been observed in tissues from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Vagal overactivity has been proposed as a possible cause of SIDS as well as of vasovagal syncopes. The aim of the present study was to seek whether muscarinic receptor overexpression may be the underlying mechanism of vagal hyperreactivity. Rabbits with marked vagal pauses following injection of phenylephrine were selected and crossed to obtain a vagal hyperreactive strain. The density of cardiac muscarinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) gene expression were assessed. Blood markers of the observed cardiac abnormalities were also sought. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cardiac muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors were overexpressed in hyperreactive rabbits compared to control animals (2.3-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively) and the severity of the phenylephrine-induced bradycardia was correlated with their densities. A similar overexpression of M2 receptors was observed in peripheral mononuclear white blood cells, suggesting that cardiac M2 receptor expression can be inferred with high confidence from measurements in blood cells. Sequencing of the coding fragment of the M2 receptor gene revealed a single nucleotide mutation in 83% of hyperreactive animals, possibly contributing for the transcript over expression. Significant increases in AchE expression and activity were also assessed (AchE mRNA amplification ratio of 3.6 versus normal rabbits). This phenomenon might represent a compensatory consequence of muscarinic receptors over expression. Alterations in M2 receptor and AchE expression occurred between the 5th and the 7th week of age, a critical period also characterized by a higher mortality rate of hyperreactive rabbits (52% in H rabbits versus 13% in normal rabbits) and preceeded the appearance of functional disorders. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that cardiac muscarinic receptor over expression plays a critical role in the development of vagal hyperreactivity, whereas AchE hyperactivity appears as a compensatory consequence of it. Since similar vagal disorders were observed recently by us in SIDS, muscarinic receptor over expression could become a marker of risk of vasovagal syncopes and SIDS.© 2010 Livolsi et al. Source

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