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Hart A.J.,Imperial College London | Quinn P.D.,Diamond Light Source | Sampson B.,Imperial College London | Sandison A.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2010

Implant-derived material from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasties may be responsible for an unexplained tissue inflammatory response. The chemical form of the metal species in the tissues is predominantly chromium (Cr), but the currently used techniques have not been able to determine whether this is Cr(III) phosphate or Cr(III) oxide. The analytical challenge must overcome the fact that the metal in the tissues is at a relatively low concentration and tissue preparation or the microscopy beam used can affect the results. Microfocus X-ray spectroscopy using a synchrotron beam is useful in addressing both these issues. Using this technique we compared tissue from failed MOM hips with: (1) tissue from metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips; (2) chemical standards; (3) metal discs cut from MOM hips. The most abundant implant-related species in all MOM hip tissues contained Cr. Comparison with standards revealed the chemical form was Cr(III) phosphate, which did not vary with manufacturer type (four types analysed) or level of blood metal ions. Cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) were occasionally present in areas of high Cr. Co was normally found in a metallic state in the tissue, while Mo was found in an oxidized state. The variety of metallic species may have arisen from corrosion, wear or a combination of both. No evidence of Cr(VI) was seen in the tissues examined. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Barrett J.C.,HMS SULTAN
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

An analytical approximation for the mean cluster energy and, hence, cluster temperature is derived for homogeneous nucleation in pure vapor, where latent heat release leads to the cluster temperature differing from that of the surrounding vapor. It is shown that both supercritical and subcritical clusters are warmer than the surrounding vapor. The temperature of large supercritical growing clusters is also considered. © 2011 U.S. Government.


Mella R.,HMS SULTAN | Wenman M.R.,Center for Nuclear Engineering
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2015

Three dimensional models of explicit cracking of nuclear fuel pellets for a variety of power ratings have been explored with peridynamics, a non-local, mesh free, fracture mechanics method. These models were implemented in the explicitly integrated molecular dynamics code LAMMPS, which was modified to include thermal strains in solid bodies. The models of fuel fracture, during initial power transients, are shown to correlate with the mean number of cracks observed on the inner and outer edges of the pellet, by experimental post irradiation examination of fuel, for power ratings of 10 and 15 W g-1 UO2. The models of the pellet show the ability to predict expected features such as the mid-height pellet crack, the correct number of radial cracks and initiation and coalescence of radial cracks. This work presents a modelling alternative to empirical fracture data found in many fuel performance codes and requires just one parameter of fracture strain. Weibull distributions of crack numbers were fitted to both numerical and experimental data using maximum likelihood estimation so that statistical comparison could be made. The findings show P-values of less than 0.5% suggesting an excellent agreement between model and experimental distributions. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Vance A.J.,University of Portsmouth | Buick J.M.,University of Portsmouth | Livesey J.,HMS SULTAN
Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME | Year: 2012

This paper describes the aerodynamic forces on a rugby ball traveling at speeds between 5 and 15 ms -1. This range is typical of the ball speed during passing play and a range of kicking events during a game of rugby, and complements existing data for higher velocities. At the highest speeds considered here, the lift and drag coefficients are found to be compatible with previous studies at higher velocities. In contrast to these higher speed investigations, a significant variation is observed in the aerodynamic force over the range of velocities considered. Flow visualizations are also presented, indicating how the flow pattern, which is responsible for the aerodynamic forces, changes with the yaw angle of the ball. This flow and, in particular, the position of the separation points, is examined in detail. The angular position of the separation point is found to vary in a linear manner over much of the surface of the rugby ball; however, this behavior is interrupted when the separation point is close to the tip' of the ball. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Dupont L.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Dupont L.,University Paris Est Creteil | Viard F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Viard F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2010

Styela clava, a solitary ascidian native to the NW Pacific, has become a conspicuous member of fouling communities in NW European waters. As its natural dispersal appears to be limited, the wide distribution of S. clava along coasts within its introduced range may be attributed to secondary spread assisted by human activities. Here, we used six microsatellite loci to examine the genetic diversity and extent of gene flow among S. clava populations in its European introduced range. Samples were collected from 21 populations within Europe (N = 808), 4 populations within the USA and two populations within the native range (Japan). Large variation in genetic diversity was observed among the European populations but were not explained either by the geographic distance from the first introduction area (i.e. Plymouth, UK) nor by the time elapsed since the introduction. No founder effect was observed in the introduced populations, except possibly in Puget Sound (USA). At least two different introductions occurred in Europe, identified as distinct genetic clusters: northern Danish populations (resembling one Japanese population), and the rest of Europe; a sample from Shoreham (England) possibly represents a third introduction. In North America, the population from the Atlantic was genetically similar to the majority of European populations, suggesting a European origin for populations on this seaboard, while populations from the Pacific coast were genetically similar to the same Japanese population as the Danish populations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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