Gosport, United Kingdom


Gosport, United Kingdom
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2008-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.97M | Year: 2009

The project covers the structuring, organisation, coordination and implementation of training schemes in cooperation with local, national and international training organisations, to provide training to professionals active in nuclear organisations or their contractors and subcontractors. The training schemes provide a portfolio of courses, training sessions, seminars and workshops for continuous learning, for upgrading knowledge and developing skills. The training schemes allow the individual to acquire qualifications and skills, as required by specific positions in the nuclear sector, which will be documented in a training passport. The essence of such passport is to be recognised within the EU by the whole nuclear sector, which provides mobility to the individual looking for employment and an EU wide recruitment field for the nuclear employers. The recognition is subject to qualification and validation of the training courses according to a set of commonly agreed criteria, which can be ratified by law or established on a consensus basis within a network. The training schemes cover profiles for each of the following: - the basic training in selected nuclear topics of non nuclear engineers and personnel of nuclear facilities contractors and subcontractors; - the technical training for the design and construction challenges of GEN III plants, and the design of GEN IV plants. The training schemes consists of three distinct phases: - Courses, seminars, learning, scientific and technical visits, case studies; - Participation to selected activities within the scope of the training in different organisations; - Autonomous conduction of activities within the scope of the training under supervision of a mentor in one or in different organisations The first phase can be provided by universities and training centers, the second and third phases can be provided by industries, research centers and future employers.

Dupont L.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Dupont L.,University Paris Est Creteil | Viard F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Viard F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2010

Styela clava, a solitary ascidian native to the NW Pacific, has become a conspicuous member of fouling communities in NW European waters. As its natural dispersal appears to be limited, the wide distribution of S. clava along coasts within its introduced range may be attributed to secondary spread assisted by human activities. Here, we used six microsatellite loci to examine the genetic diversity and extent of gene flow among S. clava populations in its European introduced range. Samples were collected from 21 populations within Europe (N = 808), 4 populations within the USA and two populations within the native range (Japan). Large variation in genetic diversity was observed among the European populations but were not explained either by the geographic distance from the first introduction area (i.e. Plymouth, UK) nor by the time elapsed since the introduction. No founder effect was observed in the introduced populations, except possibly in Puget Sound (USA). At least two different introductions occurred in Europe, identified as distinct genetic clusters: northern Danish populations (resembling one Japanese population), and the rest of Europe; a sample from Shoreham (England) possibly represents a third introduction. In North America, the population from the Atlantic was genetically similar to the majority of European populations, suggesting a European origin for populations on this seaboard, while populations from the Pacific coast were genetically similar to the same Japanese population as the Danish populations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hart A.J.,Imperial College London | Quinn P.D.,Diamond Light Source | Sampson B.,Imperial College London | Sandison A.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2010

Implant-derived material from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasties may be responsible for an unexplained tissue inflammatory response. The chemical form of the metal species in the tissues is predominantly chromium (Cr), but the currently used techniques have not been able to determine whether this is Cr(III) phosphate or Cr(III) oxide. The analytical challenge must overcome the fact that the metal in the tissues is at a relatively low concentration and tissue preparation or the microscopy beam used can affect the results. Microfocus X-ray spectroscopy using a synchrotron beam is useful in addressing both these issues. Using this technique we compared tissue from failed MOM hips with: (1) tissue from metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips; (2) chemical standards; (3) metal discs cut from MOM hips. The most abundant implant-related species in all MOM hip tissues contained Cr. Comparison with standards revealed the chemical form was Cr(III) phosphate, which did not vary with manufacturer type (four types analysed) or level of blood metal ions. Cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) were occasionally present in areas of high Cr. Co was normally found in a metallic state in the tissue, while Mo was found in an oxidized state. The variety of metallic species may have arisen from corrosion, wear or a combination of both. No evidence of Cr(VI) was seen in the tissues examined. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lumley S.C.,Imperial College London | Lumley S.C.,HMS SULTAN | Grimes R.W.,Imperial College London | Murphy S.T.,Imperial College London | And 6 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2014

The precipitation of zirconium hydrides from Zr solid solution was investigated using first-principles lattice dynamics simulations. These included the temperature-dependent vibrational enthalpy and vibrational entropy combined with the configurational entropy terms. In contrast with previous approaches, it was found that the latent enthalpy alone is not sufficient to fully describe precipitation of hydrides; a full thermodynamic assessment is required. In particular, the vibrational enthalpy of precipitation assists in stabilizing hexagonal close-packed hydrides and is especially important in forming the metastable ζ phase. The configurational entropy change during precipitation favours face-centred cubic hydrides. Given this, at concentrations below 300 ppm H, no hydride precipitation is predicted, suggesting that when hydrides are seen in those materials it is because the local concentration of H is greater than that measured globally. While γ hydride is the most stable phase, it is very close in energy to the δ phase. © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lumley S.C.,Imperial College London | Lumley S.C.,HMS SULTAN | Murphy S.T.,Imperial College London | Burr P.A.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2013

The interactions of Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, Sn, V and Y with Zr are simulated using density functional theory. Thermodynamic stabilities of various different Zr based intermetallic compounds, including multiple Laves phase structures and solutions of alloying additions in both α and β-Zr were investigated. The thermodynamic driving forces in this system can be correlated with trends in atomic radii and the relative electronegativities of the different species. Formation energies of Fe, Ni and Sn based intermetallic compounds were found to be negative, and the Zr2Fe and Zr2Ni intermetallics were metastable. Most elements displayed negative energies of solution in β-Zr but positive energies in the α-phase, with the exception of Sn (which was negative for both) and Y (which was positive for both). Solutions formed from intermetallics showed a similar trend. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Burr P.A.,Imperial College London | Burr P.A.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation | Murphy S.T.,Imperial College London | Lumley S.C.,Imperial College London | And 3 more authors.
Corrosion Science | Year: 2013

Ab-initio computer simulations have been used to predict the energies associated with the accommodation of H atoms at interstitial sites in α, β-Zr and Zr-M intermetallics formed with common alloying additions (M=Cr, Fe, Ni). Intermetallics that relate to the Zr2(Ni,Fe) second phase particles (SPPs) found in Zircaloy-2 exhibit favourable solution enthalpies for H. The intermetallic phases that relate to the Zr(Cr,Fe)2 SPPs, found predominantly in Zircaloy-4, do not offer favourable sites for interstitial H. It is proposed that Zr(Cr,Fe)2 particles may act as bridges for the migration of H through the oxide layer, whilst the Zr2(Ni,Fe)-type particles will trap the migrating H until these are dissolved or fully oxidised. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mella R.,HMS SULTAN | Wenman M.R.,Center for Nuclear Engineering
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2015

Three dimensional models of explicit cracking of nuclear fuel pellets for a variety of power ratings have been explored with peridynamics, a non-local, mesh free, fracture mechanics method. These models were implemented in the explicitly integrated molecular dynamics code LAMMPS, which was modified to include thermal strains in solid bodies. The models of fuel fracture, during initial power transients, are shown to correlate with the mean number of cracks observed on the inner and outer edges of the pellet, by experimental post irradiation examination of fuel, for power ratings of 10 and 15 W g-1 UO2. The models of the pellet show the ability to predict expected features such as the mid-height pellet crack, the correct number of radial cracks and initiation and coalescence of radial cracks. This work presents a modelling alternative to empirical fracture data found in many fuel performance codes and requires just one parameter of fracture strain. Weibull distributions of crack numbers were fitted to both numerical and experimental data using maximum likelihood estimation so that statistical comparison could be made. The findings show P-values of less than 0.5% suggesting an excellent agreement between model and experimental distributions. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Vance A.J.,University of Portsmouth | Buick J.M.,University of Portsmouth | Livesey J.,HMS SULTAN
Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME | Year: 2012

This paper describes the aerodynamic forces on a rugby ball traveling at speeds between 5 and 15 ms -1. This range is typical of the ball speed during passing play and a range of kicking events during a game of rugby, and complements existing data for higher velocities. At the highest speeds considered here, the lift and drag coefficients are found to be compatible with previous studies at higher velocities. In contrast to these higher speed investigations, a significant variation is observed in the aerodynamic force over the range of velocities considered. Flow visualizations are also presented, indicating how the flow pattern, which is responsible for the aerodynamic forces, changes with the yaw angle of the ball. This flow and, in particular, the position of the separation points, is examined in detail. The angular position of the separation point is found to vary in a linear manner over much of the surface of the rugby ball; however, this behavior is interrupted when the separation point is close to the tip' of the ball. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

An analytical approximation for the mean cluster energy and, hence, cluster temperature is derived for homogeneous nucleation in pure vapor, where latent heat release leads to the cluster temperature differing from that of the surrounding vapor. It is shown that both supercritical and subcritical clusters are warmer than the surrounding vapor. The temperature of large supercritical growing clusters is also considered. © 2011 U.S. Government.

Bennett T.P.,HMS SULTAN | Barrett J.C.,HMS SULTAN
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The predictions of several homogeneous nucleation theories are compared with experimental results for water for a range of temperatures and vapor supersaturations, S. The theoretical models considered are: classical theory (including the 1S correction factor), the Gibbs p-form, mean-field kinetic nucleation theory (MKNT), the extended modified liquid drop model-dynamical nucleation theory, and two forms of density functional theory, one without and one with a contribution due to association. The theoretical expressions for the logarithm of the nucleation rate are expanded in a series in powers of the logarithm of S. The residual dependence (once the classical dependence has been factored out) of the experimental results shows a stronger decrease with increasing temperature than all the theories except MKNT. The residual S-dependence of the experimental results decreases with increasing supersaturation whereas all the theories except the Gibbs p-form predict an increase. The first correction term to classical theory involves both the liquid compressibility and curvature correction to the surface tension (Tolman length) so the experimental results suggest that the Tolman length is zero (as assumed in the Gibbs p-form) or positive whereas the other theories predict a negative Tolman length. The effect of including a term proportional to ln(lnS) in the series expansion is also discussed. © 2012 Crown.

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