HMS Institute of Technology

Tumkūr, India

HMS Institute of Technology

Tumkūr, India

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Shyamsundar M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Shyamsundar M.,Bharathiar University | Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,Bharathiar University | Aniz C.U.,Sud Chemie India Private Ltd
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

This study investigates the use of cordierite honeycomb monoliths coated with solid acids such as zirconia, Mo(VI)/ZrO2 and Pt-SO4 2-/ZrO2 and solid bases like zirconia-calcia, zirconia-magnesia mixed oxides in the synthesis of biodiesel from oil (PG-oil). Solid acids were used for the esterification of free fatty acids in PG-oil with methanol to reduce the percentage of free fatty acids in the oil followed by transesterification of PG-oil over solid bases to synthesize biodiesel. The oxide catalysts were coated on honeycombs by an impregnation technique and characterized for their surface acidity/basicity, crystallinity and morphology. The effect of the molar ratio of PG-oil/methanol in esterification and transesterification was studied. Reactivation and reusability of both solid acid and solid base catalysts was investigated. The catalysts were also prepared in their powder forms and their activity was compared with that of honeycomb coated forms. A two-fold increase in the yield of biodiesel was obtained when the catalysts were used in honeycomb coated forms. The results revealed that the honeycombs coated with mixed oxides such as zirconia-calcia and zirconia-magnesia were economical, efficient and eco-friendly (3e concept) for biodiesel production with ∼95% yield. © AOCS 2015.


Shyamsundar M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Sahu J.N.,University of Malaya
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2013

Zirconia & its modified forms such as Mo(VI)/ZrO2, Pt-SO4 2-/ZrO2, MgO & MgO-ZrO2 mixed oxide were prepared by impregnation method. These catalysts were analyzed for surface acidity, surface basicity and crystallinity by using techniques such as TPD & powder X-ray diffraction. Mo(VI)/ZrO2, Pt-SO4 2-/ZrO2 were used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of pongamia glabra (karanja) oil to reduce the concentration of free fatty acid and MgO and MgO-ZrO2 mixed oxide were used as solid base catalysts for transesterification of karanja oil to produce biodiesel. These zirconia catalysts were found to be highly efficient for the synthesis of biodiesel with more than 90% yield of biodiesel. These solid catalysts can be effectively reactivated and reused. © 2013 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea.


Thimmaraju N.,HMS Institute of Technology | Mohamed Shamshuddin S.Z.,HMS Institute of Technology | Pratap S.R.,Bharathiar University | Shyam Prasad K.,Bharathiar University
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

The solid acids such as Al2O3, ZrO2 and ZrO2-Al2O3 containing different ZrO2 loadings (10-100mol%) were prepared by solution combustion method (SCM) and characterized for their total surface acidity by NH3-TPD/n-butylamine back titration method and crystallinity by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. These solid acids were evaluated for their catalytic activity in the synthesis of novel O-acetylated products from substituted phenols, pyridine alcohols and aryl alcohols with acetic anhydride (AA) as an acetylating agent. The reaction conditions were optimized by varying the catalyst, molar ratio of the reactants, reaction temperature and amount of the catalyst. All the solid acids used in this study exhibited good catalytic activity in the reaction. In particular, ZrO2-Al2O3 containing 80mol% of ZrO2 was found to be highly active in the acetylation reaction with high yield of acetylated products. Triangular correlation between the surface acidity, crystallinity and catalytic activity of solid acids was observed. These solid acids were found to be reactivable and reusable. © 2015 The Authors.


Veerappadevaru G.,Siddaganga Institute of Technology | Gangadharaiah T.,Siddaganga Institute of Technology | Jagadeesh T.R.,HMS Institute of Technology
Journal of Hydraulic Research | Year: 2011

An experimental investigation to predict the characteristics of scour vortices related to the scour depth of caisson piers was conducted. Two median size sediments were used as bed materials. Three types of piers, namely a cylindrical pier, a cylindrical pier with a caisson, and a nose pier were considered. The size and the rotational speed of the primary vortex were measured and correlated to the flow and pier parameters. The vortex power available to scour the sediment is related to the power provided by the vortex in the scour process. The equilibrium scour depth was predicted based on the concept of power available in the primary scour vortex equal to the resisting power of sediment in the scour hole. The prediction of the scour depth agrees well with literature data. © 2011 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.


Thimmaraju N.,HMS Institute of Technology | Thimmaraju N.,Bharathiar University | Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,Bharathiar University
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

ZrO2-Al2O3 containing 80 mol% of ZrO2 was prepared by solution combustion, impregnation and precipitation methods. All the prepared catalytic materials were characterized by PXRD, NH3-TPD, N2 adsorption isotherms, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDAX and ICP-OES techniques. These catalytic materials were used in a rapid, simple, versatile and efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles under solvent-free conditions at moderate temperature in shorter reaction time (20 min). This is achieved by three-component cyclo-condensation of benzil, aldehydes and ammonium acetate in excellent yields. The derivatives of quinoxalines and 1,5-benzodiazepines were synthesized effectively by cyclo-condensation of 1,2-diamine with α-diketones and carbonyl compound with O-phenylenediamines respectively over ZrO2-Al2O3 at moderate temperature (80 °C) for the reaction time of 20-40 min in presence of ethanol as a solvent. The present method is experimentally simple, non-toxic and involves inexpensive reagents, clean reaction pathways and an eco-friendly catalyst. The catalytic materials used can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and reused for several reaction cycles without much loss of catalytic activity. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Veerappadevaru G.,Siddaganga Institute of Technology | Gangadharaiah T.,Siddaganga Institute of Technology | Jagadeesh T.R.,HMS Institute of Technology
Journal of Hydraulic Research | Year: 2012

The concept of conservation of power during scour by the primary vortex formed in front of caisson piers is used to develop a relation for the temporal of scour depth variation. To test this relation, experiments were conducted using two sediment beds, three types of caisson piers and four relative flow depths. The agreement between the temporal variation of scour depths from the present approach and the literature data is good. The computed values of other researchers also agree fairly with the present proportionality constants. An expression for scour duration to reach the equilibrium scour depth is deduced from the power concept based on long duration literature data. The validity of this expression is verified for the equilibrium duration concept. Copyright © 2012 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.


Thimmaraju N.,HMS Institute of Technology | Mohamed Shamshuddin S.Z.,HMS Institute of Technology | Pratap S.R.,HMS Institute of Technology | Venkatesh,HMS Institute of Technology
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2014

Zirconia and its modified forms such as 10%Mo(VI)/ZrO2, 10%V(V)/ZrO2, 10%W(VI)/ZrO2 and SO4 2-/ZrO2 were prepared and characterized for their physico-chemical properties such as BET for surface area, NH3-TPD and n-butylamine back titration method for total surface acidity, PXRD technique for crystallinity and ICP-OES technique for elemental analysis. These materials were used as catalysts in liquid phase transesterification reaction of diethyl malonate (DEM) with benzyl alcohol (BA). Optimization of reaction conditions such as reaction time, reaction temperature, weight of the catalyst and molar ratio of reactants were carried out to obtain highest possible transester yield. Dibenzyl malonate (DBM) and benzyl ethyl malonate (BEM) were obtained as major products. Highest total transester yield of (88%) was obtained in the presence of 0.75 g of SZ catalyst at a molar ratio of DEM: BA = 1:3, reaction temperature of 393 K and reaction time 5 h. Kinetic studies were carried out to find out the rate of the reaction and energy of activation values for zirconia catalysts, in order to identify a facile catalyst system for this reaction. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed based on the kinetic data and it was observed that Eley-Rideal mechanism fits well for this reaction. Reactivation and reusability studies of the catalysts were also taken up. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Thimmaraju N.,HMS Institute of Technology | Pratap S.R.,HMS Institute of Technology | Senthil Kumar M.,SKP Engineering College | Mohamed Shamshuddin S.Z.,HMS Institute of Technology
Journal of the Korean Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Solid acid Mo(VI)/ZrO 2 with 2-10% Mo(VI) was coated on honeycomb monoliths by impregnation method. These catalytic materials were characterized by BET, NH 3-TPD/n-butylamine back titration, PXRD and SEM techniques. Phe-nyl salicylate (Salol) was synthesized via transesterification of methyl salicylate and phenol over these catalytic materials. An excellent yield (91.0%) of salol was obtained under specific reaction conditions. The effect of poisoning of acid sites of the catalytic material by adsorbing different bases and its effect on total surface acidity, powder XRD phases and catalytic activity was studied. A triangular correlation between the surface acidity, powder XRD phases and catalytic activity of Mo(VI)/ZrO 2 was observed. The thermally regenerated catalytic material was reused repeatedly with a consistent high yield of salol.


Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Shamshuddin S.Z.M.,Bharathiar University | Mubarak N.M.,University of Malaya
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical and Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Solid acids of ceria such as sulfated ceria, ceria-zirconia mixed oxide and sulfated ceria-zirconia have been coated on honeycomb monoliths by slurry coating method. The catalyst materials are characterized by NH3-TPD for surface acidity, powder XRD for crystallinity and SEM for morphology. These materials are used as solid acid catalysts in the condensation reaction of various diamines and diketones to synthesize quinoxalines. In order to optimize the reaction conditions, the effect of reaction parameters such as the catalyst type, nature of the solvent, reaction temperature, nature of the catalyst and number of reaction cycles on the yield of the quinoxaline product has been studied. A correlation between the surface acidity and the catalytic activity is observed. The catalyst materials have also been prepared in their powder forms by impregnation method and their catalytic activity is compared with that of their honeycomb coated forms. The ceria based solid acids coated on honeycomb monoliths are economical, efficient and eco-friendly in quinoxaline synthesis. © 2015 Indian Journal of Chemistry.


Mohamed Shamshuddin S.Z.,HMS Institute of Technology | Shyam Sundar M.,HMS Institute of Technology | Thimmaraju N.,HMS Institute of Technology | Venkatesh,HMS Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Comptes Rendus Chimie | Year: 2012

Cordierite honeycomb coated with solid acids such as ZrO 2, Mo/ZrO 2 and W/ZrO 2 were synthesized. These solid acid catalysts were also synthesized in their powder forms. The catalytic materials were characterized for their physicochemical properties such as surface area, surface acidity, crystallinity and morphology by using techniques such as BET, NH 3-TPD/n-butylamine back titration, powder XRD and SEM respectively. The catalytic activity of these catalytic materials was determined in an acid catalyzed transesterification reaction of methyl salicylate with phenol to synthesize phenyl salicylate (salol). The effect of concentration of Mo or W ions on ZrO 2, nature of the catalyst (whether honeycomb coated or powder form), reaction temperature, reaction time and reusability of the catalytic material in transesterification was studied. Formation of diphenyl ether as a by-product was observed on increasing the concentration of Mo or W ions on ZrO 2 and also at higher reaction temperature. The catalytic activity of catalytic materials was correlated with surface acidity and the crystalline phases of catalytic material. Transesterification reactions were also carried out with methyl salicylate and benzyl alcohol or cyclohexanol to synthesize their respective salicylate esters. A probable mechanism of transesterification of methyl salicylate with an alcohol is also proposed. The honeycomb catalysts were found to be efficient, ecofriendly, economical and reusable catalysts compared to their powder forms.

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