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Thiruvananthapuram, India

Rai B.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Patel F.D.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Chakraborty S.,Tata Memorial Hospital | Kapoor R.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Aims: To compare the inter-fraction dose variation for bladder and rectum using a bladder-rectum spacer balloon (BRSB) versus vaginal gauze packing (VGP) in patients treated with high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for carcinoma cervix. Materials and methods: After the completion of external radiotherapy, 80 patients were randomised to receive intracavitary brachytherapy using either the BRSB or VGP. The procedure was carried out under general anaesthesia using tandem ovoid applicators. Computed tomography-based planning was carried out and the dose was prescribed to point A. Doses to 0.1, 1 and 2 cm3 volumes were reported for bladder and rectum for each fraction. The absolute inter-fraction dose variation for each subvolume was compared using the independent sample t-test. Result: The mean bladder and rectal volumes, as well as the inter-fraction volume variation, were comparable for the BRSB and VGP. The BRSB resulted in a significant reduction in absolute dose as well as the inter-fraction variation for dose to 2 cm3 rectum volumes (BRSB 0.80 Gy, standard deviation 0.71 Gy versus VGP 1.16 Gy, standard deviation 0.83 Gy; P = 0.04). Cumulative bladder D2cm3 doses of more than 90 Gy3 were observed in six patients in the BRSB arm versus four patients in the VGP arm (P = 0.73). In both the arms, the rectal D2cm3 doses did not exceed 75 Gy3. Conclusions: Use of a BRSB resulted in a significant reduction in inter-fraction variation in D2cm3 rectal dose. However, no significant difference in the inter-fraction dose variation for the other subvolumes of bladder and rectum could be shown between the BRSB and VGP. The use of a BRSB may enable rectal dose reduction and inter-fraction variation where anaesthesia is not routinely used or where there is limited physician expertise. The modification suggested in the BRSB may facilitate its additional usage. © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Source


George S.C.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Rajan R.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Aprem A.S.,HLL Lifecare Ltd | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Kim S.S.,Inha University
Polymer Testing | Year: 2016

Natural rubber-clay (NR-clay) nanocomposites were prepared by blending on a two roll mill. Organomodified Cloisite clay was used in this study. The effect of concentration of clay, type of clay and vulcanizing systems on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites were studied in detail. NR-clay nanocomposites were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. X-ray results suggest that the intergallery distance is increased in all samples studied. There is good improvement in properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus on incorporation of nanoclay in NR. TEM photographs show that exfoliation of the clay occurred at a concentration of 5 phr of cloisite 20A. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of combination of T. arjuna and α-tocopherol in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Methods: Wistar albino rats were pre-treated with hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (HETA) and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) daily for 30 days. Isoproterenol (ISP, 85 mg/kg b.w) was administered on 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 hr. Results: ISP treated rats showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA), cardiac markers (CK-MB, SGOT, Trop I and LDH), pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, CRP, TNF-α) levels and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2/ Bax) as compared to healthy group. Pre-treatment with HETA 100 mg/kg b. w, reduced the elevated levels of these markers and significant effect (p<0.05) were observed with the combination of HETA and α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg/kg b. w, which was further confirmed by histopathological studies. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the combination of α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (100 mg/kg b. w) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from ISP-induced myocardial injury and it may have therapeutic and prophylactic value in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2015. Source


Rai B.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Patel F.D.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Chakraborty S.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Sharma S.C.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: To compare bladder and rectum doses with the use of a bladder-rectum spacer balloon (BRSB) versus standard gauze packing in the same patient receiving 2 high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy fractions. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized study to compare the reduction in bladder and rectum doses with the use of a BRSB compared with standard gauze packing in patients with carcinoma of the cervix being treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. The patients were randomized between 2 arms. In arm A, vaginal packing was done with standard gauze packing in the first application, and BRSB was used in the second application. Arm B was the reverse of arm A. The International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses and doses to 0.1-cm3, 1-cm 3, 2-cm3, 5-cm3, and 10-cm3 volumes of bladder and rectum were compared. The patients were also subjectively assessed for the ease of application and the time taken for application. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test. Results: A total of 43 patients were enrolled; however, 3 patients had to be excluded because the BRSB could not be inserted owing to unfavorable local anatomy. Thus 40 patients (80 plans) were evaluated. The application was difficult in 3 patients with BRSB, and in 2 patients with BRSB the application time was prolonged. There was no significant difference in bladder doses to 0.1 cm3, 1 cm3, 2 cm3, 5 cm3, and 10 cm3 and ICRU bladder point. Statistically significant dose reductions to 0.1-cm3, 1-cm3, and 2-cm3 volumes for rectum were observed with the BRSB. No significant differences in 5-cm3 and 10-cm3 volumes and ICRU rectum point were observed. Conclusion: A statistically significant dose reduction was observed for small high-dose volumes in rectum with the BRSB. The doses to bladder were comparable for BRSB and gauze packing. Transparent balloons of variable sizes are recommended for patients with a less spacious vaginal cavity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jose A.J.,Anna University | Alagar M.,Anna University | Aprem A.S.,HLL Lifecare Ltd
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Organo-modified fluorohectorite (OFH) clay-filled polysulfone (PSf) nanocomposites were prepared by a solution casting method. The dispersion of OFH clay in PSf nanocomposites was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal analysis revealed that incorporation of organoclay increased the thermal stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of nanocomposites. The barrier properties of the nanocomposites studied were found to be significantly improved. It is worth mentioning that the improved thermal stability and barrier performance of these nanocomposites with the addition of organoclay in PSf matrix obviously offers immense potential in industrial and automobile applications. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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