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Henning T.,Free University of Berlin | Quandt D.,University of Bonn | Grosse-Veldmann B.,University of Bonn | Monro A.,HLAA | And 2 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014

The taxonomy of subcosmopolitan Urtica dioica L. s.l. is problematic. Recent floras recognize Urtica dioica as a subcosmopolitan species ranging throughout the entire holarctic region and also South Africa and New Zealand. Numerous infraspecific taxa have been proposed, especially in western Eurasia. There is only weak character differentiation, with floral and fruit morphology largely uniform, details of leaf morphology and indumentum are therefore primarily used for species delimitation, together with some characters of gender distribution and growth habit. The present study addresses the enigmatic relationships of the infraspecific taxa in Urtica dioica with a special emphasis on the monoecious, American representatives of Urtica dioica s.l. The study is based on extensive field and herbarium studies, molecular data and the experimental cultivation of all relevant forms. Infraspecific taxa currently assigned to U. dioica are retrieved mainly on two separate clades, one comprising the predominantly polygamous western Eurasian and African taxa (all subspecies and varieties sampled), the other comprising the monoecious American taxa. Monoecious American representatives of "Urtica dioica" and closely allied taxa (U. aquatica, U. mollis) are retrieved as a monophyletic group sister to a clade with East Asian and Australasian species, this clade is then retrieved as sister to the western and central Eurasian and African taxa of U. dioica. We therefore advocate the removal of the American representatives of this group from Urtica dioica and their placement as infraspecific taxa under Urtica gracilis. The following new names are consequently proposed: Urtica gracilis subsp. gracilis (for Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis), Urtica gracilis subsp. holosericea, comb. nov. (for Urtica dioica subsp. holosericea), Urtica gracilis subsp. aquatica, comb. & stat. nov. (for Urtica aquatica), Urtica gracilis subsp. mollis, comb. & stat. nov. (for Urtica mollis). Additionally, we describe a new subspecies from Peru under the name Urtica gracilis subsp. incaica. The literature report of Urtica gracilis (dioica subsp. gracilis) as an introduced weed in New Zealand is shown to be erroneous - the corresponding specimens belong to Australian Urtica incisa. Based on gross morphology close affinities have been proposed between a range of Australasian, Asian, North American and European infraspecific taxa, all of these can be shown to be erroneous. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

A description of Acacia moyana Lundell polyad is presented. It is compared with the morphology of other polyads of species within the subfamily Mimosoideae, including some from the paleotropics. A morphological description of the species and a distribution map are provided. Source

Oliveira C.T.,Universisdade Of Minas Gerais Ufmg | Giacomin L.L.,Universisdade Of Minas Gerais Ufmg | Zappi D.C.,HLAA
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2011

A new species of Kerianthera, K. longiflora Zappi & C. T. Oliveira (Rubiaceae), has been discovered in relicts of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This genus was, until now, thought to be monotypic and to occur only in the Amazon. The morphology, phenology and habitat of the new species are discussed and the IUCN conservation status of this and K. preclara are provided. © 2011 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Source

Gomez-Acevedo S.,Institute Ecologia | Rico-Arce L.,HLAA | Delgado-Salinas A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Magallon S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Eguiarte L.E.,Institute Ecologia
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44 ± 1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58 ± 0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

In recent years numerous authors have suggested various generic placements for the Crape Ginger but still no valid available name has been published. I therefore give a short overview and make the necessary combinations. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

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