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PubMed | University of Xalapas, The Institute for Regional Conservation, Pulsar Group LLC, Volcan Toliman 6100 and 51 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature plants | Year: 2016

A high proportion of plant species is predicted to be threatened with extinction in the near future. However, the threat status of only a small number has been evaluated compared with key animal groups, rendering the magnitude and nature of the risks plants face unclear. Here we report the results of a global species assessment for the largest plant taxon evaluated to date under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Categories and Criteria, the iconic Cactaceae (cacti). We show that cacti are among the most threatened taxonomic groups assessed to date, with 31% of the 1,478 evaluated species threatened, demonstrating the high anthropogenic pressures on biodiversity in arid lands. The distribution of threatened species and the predominant threatening processes and drivers are different to those described for other taxa. The most significant threat processes comprise land conversion to agriculture and aquaculture, collection as biological resources, and residential and commercial development. The dominant drivers of extinction risk are the unscrupulous collection of live plants and seeds for horticultural trade and private ornamental collections, smallholder livestock ranching and smallholder annual agriculture. Our findings demonstrate that global species assessments are readily achievable for major groups of plants with relatively moderate resources, and highlight different conservation priorities and actions to those derived from species assessments of key animal groups.

Gomez-Acevedo S.,Institute Ecologia | Rico-Arce L.,HLAA | Delgado-Salinas A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Magallon S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Eguiarte L.E.,Institute Ecologia
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44 ± 1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58 ± 0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Fatihah H.N.N.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Fatihah H.N.N.,University of Birmingham | Maxted N.,University of Birmingham | Rico Arce L.,HLAA
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Psophocarpus Neck. ex DC. (Leguminosae; Papilionoideae) is a genus of eight tropical African legume species and with a single cultivated Asian species P. tetragonolobus or the winged bean. Current increasing interest in the use of wild relatives as a source of adaptive traits for breeding has lead to an attempt to clarify the phylogenetic relationships within the genus. To test the monophyly of Psophorcarpus, a cladistics analysis was undertaken based on morphological characters recorded from herbarium specimens representing the nine species of Psophocapus with species of three related genera, Vigna, Otoptera and Dysolobium, as outgroups. The results indicated that the genus Psophocarpus is monophyletic and the nine species resolved into four subclades: subgen. Psophocarpus sect. Psophocarpus (P. palustris, P. tetragonolobus and P. scandens); subgen. Psophocarpus sect. Vignopsis (P. lancifolius and P. lukafuensis); subgen. Lophostigma (P. obovalis, P. monophyllus and P. lecomtei); and a new subgen. Longipedunculares (P. grandiflorus) which is herein proposed. © 2012 South African Association of Botanists.

D'Eeckenbrugge G.C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Govaerts R.,HLAA
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

To clarify the last pineapple classification, which only recognizes the tetraploid crownless A. macrodontes and the diploid A. comosus, with three cultivated and two wild botanical varieties, we re-establish A. comosus var. microstachys and revise ancient synonymies, underlining misinterpretations and distinguishing horticultural names from botanical names whenever possible. © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Calvillo-Canadell L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Cevallos-Ferriz S.R.S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Rico-Arce L.,HLAA
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

A diverse biota included in the amber of the early Miocene La Quinta Formation, Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico, includes nicely preserved flowers of the legume genus Hymenaea (Caesalpinioideae: Detarieae), the same plant that produced the amber-forming resin. Our observations confirm the presence of two distinct species. Hymenaea mexicana Poinar and Brown is characterized by sub-equal clawed petals, and a verrucose and basally hirsute ovary, resembling the flower of extant Hymenaea verrucosa Gaertner (section Trachylobium), an African species. In contrast, the new species Hymenaea allendis Calvillo-Canadell, Cevallos-Ferriz & Rico-Arce is distinguished by its prominent nectariferous disc, and smooth glabrous ovary, thus resembling Hymenaea courbaril L. (section Hymenaea) with an American lineage of the genus. Different maturation stages of these flowers are preserved, with recognition of a development series that parallels that of extant relatives. Presence of these two species of Hymenaea, ca. 23 my ago in southern Mexico has interesting biogeographic implications for the development and history of neotropical floras during the mid-Cenozoic. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The Hearing Loss Association of America, California State Association, Inc. (HLAA-CA) announces its participation in the California Academy of Audiology (CAA) 16th Annual Statewide Conference at the Double Tree by Hilton in San Jose, California, on September 10-12, 2015.

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