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Ohnishi H.,Kyorin University | Saji H.,HLA Foundation Laboratory
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


PubMed | Red Cross, Kotorii Isahaya Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, National Institute of Mental Health and 17 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2015

Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1*06:02. DQB1*06:02 is common in the general population (10-30%); therefore, additional genetic factors are needed for the development of narcolepsy. In the present study, HLA-DQB1 in 664 Japanese narcoleptic subjects and 3131 Japanese control subjects was examined to determine whether HLA-DQB1 alleles located in trans of DQB1*06:02 are associated with narcolepsy. The strongest association was with DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.4 10(-10), odds ratio, OR = 0.39), as reported in previous studies. Additional predisposing effects of DQB1*03:02 were also found (P = 2.5 10(-9), OR = 1.97). A comparison between DQB1*06:02 heterozygous cases and controls revealed dominant protective effects of DQB1*06:01 and DQB1*05:01. In addition, a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based conditional analysis controlling for the effect of HLA-DQB1 was performed to determine whether there were other independent HLA associations outside of HLA-DQB1. This analysis revealed associations at HLA-DPB1 in the HLA class II region (rs3117242, P = 4.1 10(-5), OR = 2.45; DPB1*05:01, P = 8.1 10(-3), OR = 1.39). These results indicate that complex HLA class II associations contribute to the genetic predisposition to narcolepsy.


PubMed | Red Cross, Kotorii Isahaya Hospital, The University of Shimane, National Center Hospital and 20 more.
Type: | Journal: Human genome variation | Year: 2016

Narcolepsy without cataplexy (NA w/o CA) (narcolepsy type 2) is a lifelong disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities, but no cataplexy. In the present study, we examined the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1 in 160 Japanese patients with NA w/o CA and 1,418 control subjects. Frequencies of DQB1*06:02 were significantly higher in patients with NA w/o CA compared with controls (allele frequency: 16.6 vs. 7.8%, P=1.110(-7), odds ratio (OR)=2.36; carrier frequency: 31.3 vs. 14.7%, P=7.610(-8), OR=2.64). Distributions of HLA-DQB1 alleles other than DQB1*06:02 were compared between NA w/o CA and narcolepsy with cataplexy (NA-CA) to assess whether the genetic backgrounds of the two diseases have similarities. The distribution of the HLA-DQB1 alleles in DQB1*06:02-negative NA w/o CA was significantly different from that in NA-CA (P=5.810(-7)). On the other hand, the patterns of the HLA-DQB1 alleles were similar between DQB1*06:02-positive NA w/o CA and NA-CA. HLA-DQB1 analysis was also performed in 186 Japanese patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (IHS) with/without long sleep time, but no significant associations were observed.


PubMed | Red Cross, Shinshu University, Saitama University, Okayama University of Science and 19 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Associations of variants located in the HLA class II region with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection have been identified in Asian populations. Here, HLA imputation method was applied to determine HLA alleles using genome-wide SNP typing data of 1,975 Japanese individuals (1,033 HBV patients and 942 healthy controls). Together with data of an additional 1,481 Japanese healthy controls, association tests of six HLA loci including HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1, were performed. Although the strongest association was detected at a SNP located in the HLA-DP locus in a SNP-based GWAS using data from the 1,975 Japanese individuals, HLA genotyping-based analysis identified DQB1*06:01 as having the strongest association, showing a greater association with CHB susceptibility (OR=1.76, P=6.5710(-18)) than any one of five HLA-DPB1 alleles that were previously reported as CHB susceptibility alleles. Moreover, HLA haplotype analysis showed that, among the five previously reported HLA-DPB1 susceptibility and protective alleles, the association of two DPB1 alleles (DPB1*09:01, and *04:01) had come from linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes, DRB1*15:02-DQB1*06:01 and DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04, respectively. The present study showed an example that SNP-based GWAS does not necessarily detect the primary susceptibility locus in the HLA region.


Maekawa K.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Futagami T.,HLA Foundation Laboratory | Kusunoki Y.,HLA Foundation Laboratory | Matsuzaki Y.,Tokyo Medical University | Takikawa H.,Teikyo University
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2013

HLA-B*07:185 differs from B*07:02:01 by one nucleotide substitution in exon 2 at position 300G>C. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | Red Cross, Tokai University, Kyushu University, Aichi University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Haematologica | Year: 2016

HLA molecules play an important role for immunoreactivity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To elucidate the effect of specific HLA alleles on acute graft-versus-host disease, we conducted a retrospective analysis using 6967 Japanese patients transplanted with T-cell-replete marrow from an unrelated donor. Using unbiased searches of patient and donor HLA alleles, patient and/or donor HLA-B*51:01 (patient: HR, 1.37,P<0.001; donor: HR, 1.35,P<0.001) and patient HLA-C*14:02 (HR, 1.35,P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease. The finding that donor HLA-C*14:02 was not associated with severe acute graft-versus-host disease prompted us to elucidate the relation of these high-risk HLA alleles with patient and donor HLA-C allele mismatches. In comparison to HLA-C allele match, patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 showed the highest risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.61,P<0.001) and transplant-related mortality (HR, 2.53,P<0.001) among all patient mismatched HLA-C alleles. Although patient HLA-C*14:02 and donor HLA-C*15:02 mismatch was usually KIR2DL-ligand mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction, the risk of patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 for severe acute graft-versus-host disease was obvious regardless of KIR2DL-ligand matching. The effect of patient and/or donor HLA-B*51:01 on acute graft-versus-host disease was attributed not only to strong linkage disequilibrium of HLA-C*14:02 and -B*51:01, but also to the effect of HLA-B*51:01 itself. With regard to clinical implications, patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 proved to be a potent risk factor for severe acute graft-versus-host disease and mortality, and should be considered a non-permissive HLA-C mismatch in donor selection for unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


PubMed | Hyogo College of Medicine and HLA Foundation Laboratory
Type: | Journal: International journal of hematology | Year: 2016

We report a pilot series of five patients who received stem cell transplantation (SCT) from a spouse for post-transplant relapse or rejection. The inclusion criterion regarding HLA disparities was three or fewer antigen mismatches in the graft-versus-host direction at the HLA-A, B, and DR loci. Four patients received spousal SCT as a third transplant attempt after post-transplant relapse and one as rescue for graft rejection. The reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen consisted of fludarabine, melphalan, and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with 3Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) for relapse cases and ATG plus 4Gy of TBI for the rejection case. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil. Peripheral blood stem cells were transplanted. Granulocyte engraftment was achieved in all cases between days 9 and 11 (median, 10) with complete spousal chimerism. In three of the five patients, no acute GVHD was observed, while one case developed grade III GVHD and one case grade IV. All four patients evaluable for the anti-leukemic effect achieved complete remission; however, all relapsed between 106 and 334day post-transplant, and died between days 152 and 548. We suggest that spousal SCT can be performed as a repetitive SCT using a RIC regimen with low-dose ATG and steroid-containing GVHD prophylaxis.

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