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Chinju, South Korea

Kim Y.S.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim S.J.,Gyeongnam Technopark | Oh T.W.,Gyeongsang National University | Byeon J.I.,HK Biotech Co. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The differential anticarcinogenic activity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, including c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA, and t,t-CLA, was examined in a mouse forestomach carcinogenesis regimen induced by benzo(a)pyrene (BP). Female ICR mice (6-7 weeks of age, 26 ± 1 g) were divided into six groups (30 mice/group, 5 mice/cage): control, linoleic acid, CLA, c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA, and t, t-CLA. Each mouse was orally given 0.1 mL of sample and 0.1 mL of olive oil on Monday and Wednesday and BP (2 mg in 0.2 mL of olive oil) on Friday. This cycle was repeated four times. Twenty-three weeks later, the experiment was terminated for tumor analysis, t,t-CLA significantly reduced (p < 0.05) both tumor number and tumor size per mouse, relative to CLA and c9,t11-CLA, but similar to t10,c12-CLA. Reduction in tumor incidence by t,t-CLA (84.6%) was similar to that by CLA, c9,t11-CLA, and t10,c12-CLA, but it was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), relative to 100% linoleic acid and control. t,t-CLA elevated the apoptotic index to 35%, relative to 23% for CLA, 21% for c9,t11-CLA, 29% for t10,c12-CLA, 7% for linoleic acid, and 4% for control, t,t-CLA up-regulated the expression of the Bax gene and activated caspase-3 enzymes but down-regulated expression of the Bcl-2 gene. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity was not affected by the CLA isomers tested. These results suggest that t,t-CLA has superior anticarcinogenic potential on BP-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia to CLA, c9,t11-CLA, and t10,c12-CLA, via the induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Rakib M.A.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim Y.S.,Gyeongsang National University | Jang W.J.,Gyeongsang National University | Choi B.D.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The protective effect of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) was examined in a human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) treated with 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), relative to t10,c12-CLA isomer. TPA inhibited GJIC in a dose-dependent and reversible manner and was associated with connexin 43 phosphorylation. Pretreatment of 20 μM c9,t11-CLA for 24 h prior to 60 nM TPA for 1 h prevented the inhibition of GJIC by reducing the phosphorylation of connexin 43 via suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by TPA was attenuated by c9,t11-CLA. The efficacy of c9,t11-CLA in protecting inhibition of GJIC, connexin 43 phosphorylation, and ROS production was superior to that of t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that c9,t11-CLA, including t10,c12-CLA, prevents the carcinogenesis of MCF-10A cells by protecting down-regulation of GJIC during the cancer promotion stage, and lack of their toxicities could be an excellent indicator for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Afrin S.,Gyeongsang National University | Rakib M.A.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim B.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim J.O.,HK Biotech Co. | Ha Y.L.,Gyeongsang National University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was determined in vitro by mushroom-derived eritadenine (EA), which was analyzed in 11 principal Korean edible mushrooms. EA inhibited ACE activity with 0.091 μM IC50, whereas the IC50 of captopril (CP), which is a reference compound, was 0.025 μM. Kinetic measurements of ACE reaction in the substrate of hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine (HHL) with or without EA revealed that the Vmax (0.0465 O.D/30 min) was unchanged, but the the Km increased from 2.063 to 3.887 mM, indicating that EA competes with HHL for the active site. When EA was analyzed by HPLC, Lentinus edodes with a soft cap contained the highest amount EA (642.8 mg%); however, Phellinus linteus with a hard cap contained the least amount of EA (9.4 mg%). These results indicate that EA was a strong competitive inhibitor for ACE, and edible mushrooms with soft caps contained a significant amount of EA. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Rakib M.A.,Gyeongsang National University | Rakib M.A.,University of Rajshahi | Lee W.S.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim G.S.,Gyeongsang National University | And 3 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 M concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43) expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-B and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells. © 2013 Md. Abdur Rakib et al. Source

Islam M.A.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim Y.S.,Gyeongsang National University | Oh T.W.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim G.S.,Laboratory of Biochemistry | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The anticarcinogenic activity of a mixture of trans,trans-conjugated linoleic acid (trans,trans-CLA) was investigated in rat mammary tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), with references to cis-9,trans-11-CLA and trans-10,cis-12-CLA isomers. Female, 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with MNU (50 mg/kg of body weight) and then subjected to one of five diets (control, 1% trans,trans-CLA, 1% cis-9,trans-11-CLA, 1% trans-10,cis-12-CLA, and 1% linoleic acid; 8 rats/group) for 16 weeks. Food and water were made available ad libitum. trans,trans-CLA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced tumor incidence, number, multiplicity, and size and significantly (p < 0.05) increased apoptosis, relative to cis-9,trans-11-CLA and trans-10,cis-12-CLA. The molecular mechanism of trans,trans-CLA was elucidated by measuring apoptosis-related gene products and fatty acid composition in tumors. trans,trans-CLA led to increases in the p53 protein and Bax protein levels but suppressed the expression of Bcl-2 protein. The activation of caspase-3 led to the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which resulted in the execution of apoptosis. In addition, trans,trans-CLA reduced cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenease-2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ protein levels. These results suggest that the trans,trans-CLA inhibits MNU-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis through the induction of apoptosis in conjunction with the reduction of arachidonic acid metabolites and that the efficacy of trans,trans-CLA is superior to cis-9,trans-11-CLA and trans-10,cis-12-CLA. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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