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Helsinki, Finland

Hannus S.,A+ Network | Kauppila T.,A+ Network | Pitkaniemi J.,Hjelt Institute | Launonen K.,University of Helsinki
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica

Objective: To evaluate the ability of language tests to identify children with specific language impairment (SLI) in primary health care. All the language tests presently in clinical use in Finland were applied. Method: All the children with SLI living in one city in Finland constituted the cohort. Test scores were collected from 83 subjects drawn from a birth cohort of 4,553 children. Finally 31 case-control pairs were studied. All SLI diagnoses were set in secondary health care. Test scores of 14 language tests were examined that, together with subtests, included 39 different tasks. Results: Out of 39 performed tests, the difference in test scores between children with SLI and their matched controls was statistically significant in 26 tests. A group of six tests had good sensitivity and moderate specificity for SLI diagnosis and they correctly classified children with SLI to either F80.1 or F80.2 diagnosis category. Conclusion: The results suggest that most of the language tests in Finnish identify children with SLI and, furthermore, that these tests identify language deficits that are consistent with those found in other studies. More studies with larger age-matched populations are needed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

King J.L.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Larue B.L.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Novroski N.M.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | Stoljarova M.,University of North Texas Health Science Center | And 10 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics

Mitochondrial DNA typing in forensic genetics has been performed traditionally using Sanger-type sequencing. Consequently sequencing of a relatively-large target such as the mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) is laborious and time consuming. Thus, sequencing typically focuses on the control region due to its high concentration of variation. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has become more accessible in recent years allowing for high-throughput processing of large target areas. In this study, Nextera® XT DNA Sample Preparation Kit and the Illumina MiSeq™ were utilized to generate quality whole genome mitochondrial haplotypes from 283 individuals in a both cost-effective and rapid manner. Results showed that haplotypes can be generated at a high depth of coverage with limited strand bias. The distribution of variants across the mitochondrial genome was described and demonstrated greater variation within the coding region than the non-coding region. Haplotype and haplogroup diversity were described with respect to whole mtGenome and HVI/HVII. An overall increase in haplotype or genetic diversity and random match probability, as well as better haplogroup assignment demonstrates that MPS of the mtGenome using the Illumina MiSeq system is a viable and reliable methodology. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Joutsenniemi K.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Laaksonen M.A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Knekt P.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Knekt P.,Social Insurance Institution | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders

Background: Socio-demographic factors predict the outcome of short-term psychotherapy (STT) in the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, but information on the prediction for long long-term therapy (LPP) is lacking. We aimed to compare the prediction of changes in psychiatric symptoms afforded by socio-demographic factors across two treatment conditions, short- versus long-term psychotherapy. Methods: In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorders, aged 20-46 years, were randomly assigned to STT or LPP. Socio-demographic factors (i.e. age, gender, education, employment status, marital status, and living arrangement) were self-reported. Psychiatric symptoms were measured by the Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI) and Anxiety scale (SCL-90-Anx), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and seven times during a three-year follow-up period. Results: Socio-demographic factors were found to predict symptom development during follow-up irrespective of the baseline symptom level. Patients in a relatively good position, i.e. married and highly educated patients benefited from STT, whereas patients in less advantaged positions, i.e. homemakers, lone parents, and divorced patients needed LPP or did not benefit from either therapy. In several categories of socio-demographic factors, the extent to which a patient's background predicted the outcome of the psychotherapy varied according to whether general, anxiety or depressive symptoms were studied. Limitations: We were unable to assess widows and pensioners. For ethical reasons, a no-treatment control group with a long follow-up could not be included in the study design. Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors may need to be considered in the selection of patients for short- and long-term therapy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Makinen T.E.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Sippola R.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Borodulin K.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Rahkonen O.,Hjelt Institute | And 7 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

Although educational differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) exist across Europe, the independent effect of educational level on leisure-time physical activity has rarely been explored. This study examines the relative contribution of occupational class, employment status, and educational level to LTPA across 12 European countries. The data were obtained from 12 European health surveys conducted at the turn of the century and identified in the EUROTHINE project. All information was self-reported. Logistic regression was applied and relative inequality index (RII) was calculated. Analyses were limited to those in the prime working-age (age 30-59; total N=137646) men and women. In all 12 European countries, LTPA was more common in the high-educated than in the low-educated. The association between education and LTPA remained mostly unchanged after adjusting for marital status, urbanization, and self-rated health. After further adjusting for occupational class and employment status, the educational differences in LTPA were only slightly attenuated. An inverse association was found between educational level and LTPA across almost all 12 European countries. Occupational class and employment status had only a modest effect on educational differences in LTPA in most of the examined countries, suggesting that education remains an important predictor of LTPA. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Mustelin L.,University of Helsinki | Mustelin L.,Hjelt Institute | Latvala A.,University of Helsinki | Latvala A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology

Mustelin L, Latvala A, Pietiläinen KH, Piirilä P, Sovijärvi AR, Kujala UM, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. Associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity in young adult twins. J Appl Physiol 110: 681-686, 2011. First published December 30, 2010; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol. 00753.2010.-Exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity are strongly influenced by genetic factors. By studying young adult twins, we examined to what extent these interrelated traits have shared genetic and environmental etiologies. We studied 304 twin individuals selected from the population- based FinnTwin16 study. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire, yielding three indexes: sport index, leisuretime index, and work index. In this study, we focused on sport index, which describes sports participation. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cardiorespiratory fitness using a bicycle ergometer exercise test with gas exchange analysis. The Baecke sport index was associated with high maximal oxygen uptake adjusted for lean body mass (V O2max[adj]) (r = 0.40), with low body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.44) and low waist circumference (WC) (r = - f0.29). Heritability estimates for the key traits were as follows: 56% for sport index, 71% for V O2max[adj], 77% for body mass index, 66% for WC, and 68% for BF%. The association between sport index and V O2max was mostly explained by genetic factors (70%), as were both the association between sport index and BF% (71%) and that between sport index and WC (59%). Our results suggest that genetic factors explain a considerable part of the associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity. © 2011 the American Physiological Society. Source

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