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Prospect, CT, United States

Troxel B.,The New School | Troxel B.,Hixon Center for Urban Ecology | Piana M.,The New School | Piana M.,Hixon Center for Urban Ecology | And 3 more authors.
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2013

Knowledge of allometric equations can enable urban forest managers to meet desired economic, social, and ecological goals. However, there remains limited regional data on young tree growth within the urban landscape. The objective of this study is to address this research gap and examine interactions between age, bole size and crown dimensions of young urban trees in New Haven, CT, USA to identify allometric relationships and generate predictive growth equations useful for the region. This study examines the 10 most common species from a census of 1474 community planted trees (ages 4-16). Regressions were applied to relate diameter at breast height (dbh), age (years since transplanting), tree height, crown diameter and crown volume. Across all ten species each allometric relationship was statistically (p<0.001) significant at an α-level of 0.05. Consistently, shade trees demonstrated stronger relationships than ornamental trees. Crown diameter and dbh displayed the strongest fit with eight of the ten species having an R2>0.70. Crown volume exhibited a good fit for each of the shade tree species (R2>0.85), while the coefficients of determination for the ornamentals varied (0.380.66). Allometric relationships can be used to develop spacing guidelines for commonly planted urban trees. These correlations will better equip forest managers to predict the growth of urban trees, thereby improving the management and maintenance of New England's urban forests. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Jack-Scott E.,The New School | Jack-Scott E.,Hixon Center for Urban Ecology | Piana M.,The New School | Piana M.,Hixon Center for Urban Ecology | And 5 more authors.
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry | Year: 2013

Over the last two decades, there has been a substantial increase in street tree plantings across the United States. Many cities have set ambitious planting goals, relying on volunteer community groups to meet them. Existing research demonstrates that community stewardship increases the survival of urban street trees. There is a lack of research, however, on how defining characteristics of community groups affect the survival and growth of the trees they plant. This study explores the significance of community group size (# participants), type (apartment, block watch, church, concerned neighbors, park, public housing, school, and social service), planting longevity (# years active), experience level (# trees planted), and neighborhood (geo-political boundaries). Measured for this study were 1393 trees planted from 1995 to 2007, by 134 groups, through the Urban Resources Initiative's Community Greenspace program in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S. There was an overall survival rate of 76%. Highest survival and growth was found among trees planted by groups with more planting experience, greater longevity, and more participants. Higher tree survival and growth was observed when trees were planted by groups working in line with their mission (e.g., park groups in parks). Lowest survival and growth was found among yard trees planted by public housing groups. Existing canopy cover and neighborhood percent homeownership had little effect on survival or growth. This research can offer guidance for city managers by suggesting which planting groups require particular assistance in conducting successful, lasting street tree plantings. © 2013 International Society of Arboriculture. Source

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