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Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme
International journal of environmental research and public health

The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of injury among adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) included 9,333 students at the ages from 13 to 15 years inclusive from Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand is chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The percentage of adolescents reporting one or more serious injuries within the past 12 months was 42.2% for all countries, ranging from 27.0% in Myanmar to 46.8% in Thailand. By major activity, "fall" (14.6%) was the leading external cause of injury, followed by playing or training for a sport (9.9%) and vehicle accident (6.1%). In multivariate regression analysis Thailand and Indonesia, being male, substance use (smoking and drinking alcohol) and psychological distress were associated with annual injury prevalence. Risk factors of substance use and psychological distress should be considered in an integrated approach to injury etiology in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among school children. Source

Siviroj P.,Chiang Mai University | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of the Free State | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Morarit S.,Health Promotion Region 10
BMC Public Health

Background: Road traffic accidents are the second largest cause of burden of disease in Thailand, largely attributable to behavioural risk factors including drinking and driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use seatbelts. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of non-seatbelt use among drivers during Songkran festival in Thailand. Methods. A cross-sectional survey has been performed to determine the prevalence of seatbelt use among Thai drivers (N=13722) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample the population of drivers was consecutively selected from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist on seat belt use. Results: An overall prevalence of 28.4% of non-seatbelt use among drivers was found. In multivariable analysis demographics (being male, younger age, coming from the Northern or Southern region in Thailand), environmental factors (earlier during the Songkran festival, in the morning and late evening and on main roads in town), seatbelt use experiences and attitudes (having been in an accident before, never having used a seatbelt, no intention to use a seatbelt, lack of awareness of danger of non-seatbelt use and lower perceived risk of being caught with non-seatbelt use) and lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign (less frequent exposure to RSA campaign, less frequent following of RTI statistics and not talking with others about the RSA campaign) were associated with non-seatbelt use. Conclusion: Rates of non-seatbelt use by Thai drivers during Songkran festival was 28.4%. Lower exposure to the RSA campaign was found to be associated with non-seatbelt use among drivers during the Songkran festival. © 2012 Siviroj et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Background: With the advancements in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals have been seeking determinants of personal health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of health risk behaviors and its associated factors in a sample of Kyrgyz university students. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, health risk behaviors among a sample of randomly selected university students were assessed. The sample included 837 university students from health sciences undergraduate courses of the State Medical Academy in Kyrgyzstan. The students were 358 (42.8%) males and 479 (57.2%) females in the age range of 18-29 years (Median age = 21.3 years, SD = 1.5). Results: On average, students engaged in 9.4 (SD = 2.3) out of 23 health risk behavior practices (range, 3-18). Generally, there was a high rate of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (86.4%), eating red meat at least once a day (62%), usually adding salt to meals (78.3%), skipping breakfast (50.5%), current tobacco use (49.7%) and two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (46.1%) among men, and never using a condom with a primary partner in the past 3 months (90.9%) among women. Furthermore, 60.8% of the women were physically inactive. In bivariate analysis among men, the lack of perceived benefits was associated with health risk behavior. In multivariate analysis among women, poorer family background, being Russian, high personal constraints or stress, and better subjective health were associated with the health risk behavior index. Conclusions: Students had a high proportion of health risk behavior practices. Several high health risk practices were identified, including poor dietary behavior, physical inactivity, sexual risk behavior, and tobacco use. Gender specific predictors identified included sociodemographic characteristics and social and health variables, which can be utilized in health promotion programs. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston. Source

Ramlagan S.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes

Background:Little is known about the prevalence,predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa.This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health SAGE wave in 2008.Methods.We conducted a national populationbased cross sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa.The questionnaire included socio demographic characteristics,health variables,and anthropometric measurements.Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors,health variables and grip strength.Results:The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men mean age 61.1 years,SD = 9.1 and 31.5 kgs for women mean age 62.0 years,SD =9.7.In multivariate analysis among men,greater height,not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength,and among women, greater height,better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength.Conclusions: Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength.©2014 Ramlagan et al.;licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Mchunu G.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Tut shana B.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | And 4 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Public Health

Background: The acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis (TB) is low in South Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated factors and reasons of non-uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing by tuberculosis public primary care patients in three districts, South Africa. Methods: In May-October 2011, this cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 4726 TB patients across 42 primary health care facilities in three districts in South Africa. All new TB and new retreatment patients (N=4726) were consecutively interviewed within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The outcome was self-reported HIV testing after TB diagnosis, validated using clinic registers. Results: Almost one in ten (9.6%) of the 4726 participants had not undergone HIV testing, with the most often offered explanation being that they were not knowing where to get tested (21.3%), followed by believing not to have or at risk for HIV (24.3%), emotional concerns (not ready for test: 13.2%; afraid to get to know: 12.1%; concerns over confidentiality: 6.3%) and concerns about stigma (3.3%) and losing the job (2.0%). In multivariable analysis being male, severe psychological distress, having sex with someone HIV negative or unknown and frequency of sex without a condom were associated with not having been tested for HIV. Conclusions: The level of HIV testing among TB public primary care patients was suboptimal, as per policy all patients should be tested. The South African Department of Health should continue to scale-up HIV testing and other collaborative TB-HIV services at health facilities. Source

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