HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme

Pretoria, South Africa

HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme

Pretoria, South Africa
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Ramlagan S.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background:Little is known about the prevalence,predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa.This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health SAGE wave in 2008.Methods.We conducted a national populationbased cross sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa.The questionnaire included socio demographic characteristics,health variables,and anthropometric measurements.Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors,health variables and grip strength.Results:The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men mean age 61.1 years,SD = 9.1 and 31.5 kgs for women mean age 62.0 years,SD =9.7.In multivariate analysis among men,greater height,not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength,and among women, greater height,better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength.Conclusions: Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength.©2014 Ramlagan et al.;licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Siviroj P.,Chiang Mai University | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of the Free State | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Morarit S.,Ministry of Public Health
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Road traffic accidents are the second largest cause of burden of disease in Thailand, largely attributable to behavioural risk factors including drinking and driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use seatbelts. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of non-seatbelt use among drivers during Songkran festival in Thailand. Methods. A cross-sectional survey has been performed to determine the prevalence of seatbelt use among Thai drivers (N=13722) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample the population of drivers was consecutively selected from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist on seat belt use. Results: An overall prevalence of 28.4% of non-seatbelt use among drivers was found. In multivariable analysis demographics (being male, younger age, coming from the Northern or Southern region in Thailand), environmental factors (earlier during the Songkran festival, in the morning and late evening and on main roads in town), seatbelt use experiences and attitudes (having been in an accident before, never having used a seatbelt, no intention to use a seatbelt, lack of awareness of danger of non-seatbelt use and lower perceived risk of being caught with non-seatbelt use) and lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign (less frequent exposure to RSA campaign, less frequent following of RTI statistics and not talking with others about the RSA campaign) were associated with non-seatbelt use. Conclusion: Rates of non-seatbelt use by Thai drivers during Songkran festival was 28.4%. Lower exposure to the RSA campaign was found to be associated with non-seatbelt use among drivers during the Songkran festival. © 2012 Siviroj et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Louw J.S.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Mabaso M.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health challenge in South Africa. However, little attention is paid to the impact of health related quality of life (HRQL) among TB patients at the beginning and at the end of TB treatment. This study assesses factors associated with HRQL among tuberculosis patients in three high risk provinces in South Africa. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at primary health care settings. Patients completed the HRQL social functioning (SF)-12 health survey. Comparison of Physical Health Summary Score (PCS) and Mental Health Summary Score (MCS) was assessed at 6 months after treatment. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine the factors associated with changes in HRQL. Results: In all patients, after 6 months of treatment there was a significant improvement in HRQL with the biggest increase in the PCS. A higher educational qualification had a strong significant positive effect on the mental HRQL. Psychological distress showed a significant negative association with physical and mental HRQL after six months. Permanent residence showed a significant positive association with mental HRQL among TB patients compared to those living in shack/traditional dwellings. Rating ones health as being good and fair/poor was significantly associated with poor physical HRQL. Twenty drinks or more in the past month had a significant negative effect on the physical HRQL. Conclusion: The findings suggest that programmes targeted at improving TB treatment success should have specific interventions for patients with low educational background, impoverished households/communities and those with hazardous or harmful alcohol use. © 2016 Louw et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Naidoo P.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Naidoo P.,University of the Western Cape | And 4 more authors.
Psychology, Health and Medicine | Year: 2013

High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of the Free State | Naidoo P.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Naidoo P.,University of the Western Cape | And 4 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV.Methods: We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10), and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were collected using a structured questionnaire.Results: Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85), lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91), poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31) and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28), and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69), lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71), poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70) and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16). In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not associated with psychological distress.Conclusions: The study found high rates of psychological distress among tuberculosis patients. Improved training of providers in screening for psychological distress, appropriate referral to relevant health practitioners and providing comprehensive treatment for patients with TB who are co-infected with HIV is essential to improve their health outcomes. It is also important that structural interventions are promoted in order to improve the financial status of this group of patients. © 2012 Peltzer et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Louw J.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of the Free State | Naidoo P.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | And 4 more authors.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2012

Introduction: TB and HIV co-morbidity amount to a massive burden on healthcare systems in many countries. This study investigates health related quality of life among tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and TB-HIV co-infected public primary health care patients in three districts in South Africa.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 4900 TB patients who were in the first month of anti-TB treatment in primary public health care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Quality of life was assessed using the social functioning (SF)-12 Health Survey through face to face interviews. Associations of physical health (Physical health Component Summary = PCS) and mental health (Mental health Component Summary = MCS) were identified using logistic regression analyses.Results: The overall physical and mental health scores were 42.5 and 40.7, respectively. Emotional role, general health and bodily pain had the lowest sub-scale scores, while energy and fatigue and mental health had the highest domain scores. Independent Kruskal-Wallis tests found significant positive effects of being TB-HIV co-infected on the domains of mental health functioning, emotional role, energy and fatigue, social function and physical role, while significant negative effects were observed on general health, bodily pain and physical function. In multivariable analysis higher educational, lower psychological distress, having fewer chronic conditions and being HIV negative were significantly positively associated with PCS, and low poverty, low psychological distress and being HIV positive were positively significantly associated with MCS.Conclusion: TB and HIV weaken patients' physical functioning and impair their quality of life. It is imperative that TB control programmes at public health clinics design strategies to improve the quality of health of TB and HIV co-infected patients. © 2012 Louw et al.; Licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme
International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of injury among adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) included 9,333 students at the ages from 13 to 15 years inclusive from Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand is chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The percentage of adolescents reporting one or more serious injuries within the past 12 months was 42.2% for all countries, ranging from 27.0% in Myanmar to 46.8% in Thailand. By major activity, "fall" (14.6%) was the leading external cause of injury, followed by playing or training for a sport (9.9%) and vehicle accident (6.1%). In multivariate regression analysis Thailand and Indonesia, being male, substance use (smoking and drinking alcohol) and psychological distress were associated with annual injury prevalence. Risk factors of substance use and psychological distress should be considered in an integrated approach to injury etiology in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among school children.


Louw J.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of the Free State | Chirinda W.,HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2012

Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15-24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (n = 1007), factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents (n = 1127) with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa. © 2012 Julia Louw et al.


PubMed | Mahidol University and HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme
Type: Journal Article | Journal: African health sciences | Year: 2014

Although recent estimates of the HIV/AIDS burden in South Africa show the particular vulnerability of youth to HIV, HIV testing and its determinants are largely understudied in this age group.To investigate the prevalence and determinants of HIV testing among young people aged 18 to 24 years, as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife.South Africas national HIV prevention campaign for young people, on HIV and related risk behaviours. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted using a multistage stratified cluster sampling approach. The total sample included 3123 participants, aged 18-24, 54.6% men and 45.4% women, from four provinces (Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga).The results indicated that over half (52.2%) of the youth reported testing for HIV, with more young females (60.1%) testing for HIV compared to their male counterparts (39.9%). In the multivariate analysis, older age, being female, HIV knowledge, having ever talked to the mother or female guardian about HIV and having ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant were found to be associated with testing for HIV.There is still room for improving the low proportion of young people who test for HIV. Specific attention needs to be paid to younger males, with lack of HIV knowledge, having never talked to the mother or female guardian about HIV and having never been pregnant or made someone pregnant were less likely to be tested. Outreach at individual and community levels and public health messages targeting these youth should be implemented.


PubMed | HIV STI and TB HAST Research Programme
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health challenge in South Africa. However, little attention is paid to the impact of health related quality of life (HRQL) among TB patients at the beginning and at the end of TB treatment. This study assesses factors associated with HRQL among tuberculosis patients in three high risk provinces in South Africa.A prospective cohort study was conducted at primary health care settings. Patients completed the HRQL social functioning (SF)-12 health survey. Comparison of Physical Health Summary Score (PCS) and Mental Health Summary Score (MCS) was assessed at 6 months after treatment. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine the factors associated with changes in HRQL.In all patients, after 6 months of treatment there was a significant improvement in HRQL with the biggest increase in the PCS. A higher educational qualification had a strong significant positive effect on the mental HRQL. Psychological distress showed a significant negative association with physical and mental HRQL after six months. Permanent residence showed a significant positive association with mental HRQL among TB patients compared to those living in shack/traditional dwellings. Rating ones health as being good and fair/poor was significantly associated with poor physical HRQL. Twenty drinks or more in the past month had a significant negative effect on the physical HRQL.The findings suggest that programmes targeted at improving TB treatment success should have specific interventions for patients with low educational background, impoverished households/communities and those with hazardous or harmful alcohol use.

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