Perez-Matute P.,HIV and deptarment Metabolic Alterations Unit |
Perez-Martinez L.,HIV and deptarment Metabolic Alterations Unit |
Blanco J.R.,HIV and deptarment Metabolic Alterations Unit |
Oteo J.A.,HIV and deptarment Metabolic Alterations Unit
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2013
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has considerably improved the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. However, prolonged use of HAART has been related to long-term adverse events that can compromise patient health such as HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is consistent evidence for a central role of mitochondrial dysfunction in these pathologies. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have been described to be mainly responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue and liver although nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs) have also showed mitochondrial toxicity, which is a major concern for the selection and the long-term adherence to a particular therapy. Several mechanisms explain these deleterious effects of HAART on mitochondria, and evidence points to other mechanisms beyond the "Pol-γ hypothesis." HIV infection has also direct effects on mitochondria. In addition to the negative effects described for HIV itself and/or HAART on mitochondria, HIV-infected patients are more prone to develop a premature aging and, therefore, to present an increased oxidative state that could lead to the development of these metabolic disturbances observed in HIV-infected patients. © 2013 P. Pérez-Matute et al.