Time filter

Source Type

Washington, DC, United States

Jurgens R.,HIV AIDS | Csete J.,Columbia University | Amon J.J.,Human Rights Watch | Baral S.,Center for Public Health and Human Rights | Beyrer C.,Center for Public Health and Human Rights
The Lancet | Year: 2010

We reviewed evidence from more than 900 studies and reports on the link between human rights abuses experienced by people who use drugs and vulnerability to HIV infection and access to services. Published work documents widespread abuses of human rights, which increase vulnerability to HIV infection and negatively affect delivery of HIV programmes. These abuses include denial of harm-reduction services, discriminatory access to antiretroviral therapy, abusive law enforcement practices, and coercion in the guise of treatment for drug dependence. Protection of the human rights of people who use drugs therefore is important not only because their rights must be respected, protected, and fulfilled, but also because it is an essential precondition to improving the health of people who use drugs. Rights-based responses to HIV and drug use have had good outcomes where they have been implemented, and they should be replicated in other countries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Anastario M.P.,Cicatelli Associates Inc | Tavarez M.I.,Direccion General del Cuerpo Medico | Chun H.,HIV AIDS
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among military personnel stationed along major border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Methods: From November 2008 to January 2009, behavioral surveys were administered to 498 active duty military personnel stationed along the three largest border-crossing zones on the western border of the Dominican Republic. Participants were selected using systematic random sampling and asked about their sexual behavior over the past 12 months, alcohol use, and mental health. Results: Forty-one percent reported having casual sex during the past 12 months, 37% of men had a history of having sex with a commercial sex worker (19% during the past 12 months), and 7% of men reported a history of having sex with a transmigrating Haitian (6% during the past 12 months). Among sexually non-monogamous respondents (51%), inconsistent condom use exceeded 60% for those engaging in anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Fifteen percent reported using sexual coercion during the past 12 months. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors were prevalent among military personnel stationed along border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Prevention programs targeted at military personnel in this region should incorporate sexual coercion and mental health as key elements of their HIV prevention programs. Source

Rodriguez A.E.,University of Miami | Castel A.D.,George Washington University | Parish C.L.,Columbia University | Willis S.,George Washington University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

INTRODUCTION: In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded its recommendation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use in the workplace to include nonoccupational exposures (nPEP). The availability and extensive use of nPEP have not achieved widespread acceptance among health-care providers of high-risk populations, and public health and primary care agencies have been sparse in their implementation of nPEP promotion, protocols, and practices. METHODS: We conducted a survey of HIV providers (n = 142, response rate = 61%) in Miami-Dade County (Florida) and the District of Columbia that focused on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to the delivery of nPEP. We then analyzed differences in survey responses by site and by history of prescribing nPEP using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: More District of Columbia providers (59.7%) reported ever prescribing nPEP than in Miami (39.5%, P < 0.048). The majority of practices in both cities did not have a written nPEP protocol and rarely or never had patients request nPEP. Multivariable analysis for history of prescribing nPEP was dominated by having patients request nPEP [odds ratio (OR) = 21.53] and the belief that nPEP would lead to antiretroviral resistance (OR = 0.14) and having a written nPEP protocol (OR = 7.49). DISCUSSION: Our findings are consistent with earlier studies showing the underuse of nPEP as a prevention strategy. The significance of having a written nPEP protocol and of patient requests for nPEP speaks to the importance of using targeted strategies to promote widespread awareness of the use of HIV antiretroviral medications as a prevention intervention. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Kuo I.,George Washington University | Greenberg A.E.,George Washington University | Magnus M.,George Washington University | Phillips G.,George Washington University | And 5 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of substance use, HIV prevalence, and sexual risk behaviors in a community-based sample of heterosexuals recruited from areas at high risk for HIV/AIDS and poverty in Washington, DC. Methods: Community-recruited heterosexuals aged 18-50 from areas of high AIDS and poverty rates in DC were analyzed. Based on past 12 months use, participants were hierarchically classified into five groups: (1) ever injection drug use (IDU); (2) non-injection crack; (3) non-injection heroin and cocaine; (4) marijuana; and (5) no drug use. Sexual behaviors and HIV serology were also assessed. Results: Of 862 participants, 40% were men, most were Black and unemployed, and more than half had ever been incarcerated. Prevalence of past year substance use was high: binge drinking (59%); marijuana (50%); non-injection crack (28%); heroin and/or cocaine injection (28%), non-injection cocaine (13%); and ecstasy (13%). In the hierarchical classification, 25% were ever IDU, 15% non-injection crack users, 2% non-injection heroin and/or cocaine users, 31% marijuana users, and 27% reported no drug use. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 5.7% and differed by drug use group-9.5%, 11.1%, 1.8%, 1.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. Nearly half reported having ≥3 sex partners in the past year; 20% reported exchange partners, and 69% had concurrent sex partners. Conclusion: Estimated prevalence of substance use in this heterosexual population was high. HIV prevalence among IDUs and non-injection crack users was higher than the estimated population prevalence in Washington, DC. Sexual behaviors above and beyond drug use are likely to be driving HIV transmission. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Wang B.,Wayne State University | Stanton B.,Wayne State University | Deveaux L.,HIV AIDS | Li X.,Wayne State University | And 2 more authors.
AIDS Education and Prevention | Year: 2014

Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent Communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth’s condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. ©2014 The Guilford Press. Source

Discover hidden collaborations