HIV AIDS

Lusaka, Zambia
Lusaka, Zambia

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Anastario M.P.,Cicatelli Associates Inc. | Tavarez M.I.,Direccion General del Cuerpo Medico | Chun H.,HIV AIDS
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among military personnel stationed along major border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Methods: From November 2008 to January 2009, behavioral surveys were administered to 498 active duty military personnel stationed along the three largest border-crossing zones on the western border of the Dominican Republic. Participants were selected using systematic random sampling and asked about their sexual behavior over the past 12 months, alcohol use, and mental health. Results: Forty-one percent reported having casual sex during the past 12 months, 37% of men had a history of having sex with a commercial sex worker (19% during the past 12 months), and 7% of men reported a history of having sex with a transmigrating Haitian (6% during the past 12 months). Among sexually non-monogamous respondents (51%), inconsistent condom use exceeded 60% for those engaging in anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Fifteen percent reported using sexual coercion during the past 12 months. Conclusions: Sexual risk behaviors were prevalent among military personnel stationed along border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Prevention programs targeted at military personnel in this region should incorporate sexual coercion and mental health as key elements of their HIV prevention programs.


Bwalya B.B.,Mulungushi University | Banda A.,University of Zambia | Jere S.,Mulungushi University | Amanzi P.,HIV AIDS | Funsani P.,The Global Fund
Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 – 24 face a disproportionate risk of contracting the virus, presumably as a result of limited HIV- and AIDSrelated knowledge and attitudes and high-risk behaviours. Our aim was to assess the influence of demographics and socio-economic status on knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour of 15 - 24 year old youths, with the goal of informing the fight against HIV and AIDS in Zambia. METHODS: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression were carried out using SPSS version 18.0 and p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: General knowledge about HIV and AIDS was high (98 percent). However, comprehensive correct was considerably low among youths (43 percent). This is in spite youths full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. Youths with comprehensive correct knowledge on HIV and AIDS had increased odds of having positive attitudes towards use of condoms during sexual intercourse (AOR=1.645; p<0.001). Female youths were (AOR=3.934; p<0.001) more likely to have tested for HIV than males. Youths without education had increased odds of not using a condom with their most recent sexual partner than those with secondary and higher education (AOR=6.635; P=). CONCLUSION: Though HIV and AIDS general knowledge by youths was high, comprehensive correct knowledge, positive attitudes and behaviour were considerably low or poor. Gender educational, age and place of residence acts as explanatory variables in the observed negative attitudes and behaviours among youths in Zambia. © 2015, Prex S.p.A. All rights Reserved.


PubMed | HIV AIDS, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, HIV AIDS Immunology. and HIV Disease.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) | Year: 2016

Aim To identify smoking prevalence and behaviour in clients who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and to enrol those wanting to stop smoking in a smoking cessation programme. Method A questionnaire consisting of 28 questions on smoking behaviour was developed. Over an eight-week period at the Immunology Clinic, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales, Australia, 68 clients were asked to complete the questionnaire; 23 were ineligible because they were non-smokers. Of the 45 respondents who completed the questionnaire, 39 were current smokers and six were ex-smokers. Twenty seven clients enrolled in the smoking cessation programme. Results Smoking behaviour did not change due to a diagnosis of HIV or living with HIV. Stress was the main reason for recommencing smoking. At the end of the programme, 22 per cent (n=6) had ceased smoking and 40 per cent (n=11) had reduced nicotine intake. Conclusion Smoking behaviour is complex and the reasons clientscontinue to smoke are multifactorial. Therefore, smoking cessationprogrammes should reflect this complexity.


Glaziou P.,HIV AIDS | Falzon D.,HIV AIDS | Floyd K.,HIV AIDS | Raviglione M.,HIV AIDS
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

With 1.4 million deaths in 2011 and 8.7 million new cases, tuberculosis (TB) disease remains a global scourge. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and demonstrating whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments. This paper discusses the methods used to estimate the global burden of TB; estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality for 2011, combined with assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and prospects for elimination of TB by 2050.©WorldHealthOrganization 2013. All rights reserved.


Jurgens R.,HIV AIDS | Csete J.,Columbia University | Amon J.J.,Human Rights Watch | Baral S.,Center for Public Health and Human Rights | Beyrer C.,Center for Public Health and Human Rights
The Lancet | Year: 2010

We reviewed evidence from more than 900 studies and reports on the link between human rights abuses experienced by people who use drugs and vulnerability to HIV infection and access to services. Published work documents widespread abuses of human rights, which increase vulnerability to HIV infection and negatively affect delivery of HIV programmes. These abuses include denial of harm-reduction services, discriminatory access to antiretroviral therapy, abusive law enforcement practices, and coercion in the guise of treatment for drug dependence. Protection of the human rights of people who use drugs therefore is important not only because their rights must be respected, protected, and fulfilled, but also because it is an essential precondition to improving the health of people who use drugs. Rights-based responses to HIV and drug use have had good outcomes where they have been implemented, and they should be replicated in other countries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | HIV AIDS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2010

We reviewed evidence from more than 900 studies and reports on the link between human rights abuses experienced by people who use drugs and vulnerability to HIV infection and access to services. Published work documents widespread abuses of human rights, which increase vulnerability to HIV infection and negatively affect delivery of HIV programmes. These abuses include denial of harm-reduction services, discriminatory access to antiretroviral therapy, abusive law enforcement practices, and coercion in the guise of treatment for drug dependence. Protection of the human rights of people who use drugs therefore is important not only because their rights must be respected, protected, and fulfilled, but also because it is an essential precondition to improving the health of people who use drugs. Rights-based responses to HIV and drug use have had good outcomes where they have been implemented, and they should be replicated in other countries.

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