Eggers C.,Krankenhaus Barmherzige Bruder |
Arendt G.,Universitatsklinikum Dusseldorf |
Hahn K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin |
Husstedt I.W.,Universitatsklinikum Munster |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2017
The modern antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection has considerably lowered the incidence of opportunistic infections. With the exception of the most severe dementia manifestations, the incidence and prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have not decreased, and HAND continues to be relevant in daily clinical practice. Now, HAND occurs in earlier stages of HIV infection, and the clinical course differs from that before the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). The predominant clinical feature is a subcortical dementia with deficits in the domains concentration, attention, and memory. Motor signs such as gait disturbance and impaired manual dexterity have become less prominent. Prior to the advent of cART, the cerebral dysfunction could at least partially be explained by the viral load and by virus-associated histopathological findings. In subjects where cART has led to undetectable or at least very low viral load, the pathogenic virus–brain interaction is less direct, and an array of poorly understood immunological and probably toxic phenomena are discussed. This paper gives an overview of the current concepts in the field of HAND and provides suggestions for the diagnostic and therapeutic management. © 2017 The Author(s)