Hitotsubashi University is a national university specialised in the social science in Tokyo, Japan. The university has campuses in Kunitachi, Kodaira, and Kanda.Hitotsubashi is considered one of the most prestigious universities and the best in economics and commerce related subjects in Japan, consistently ranking amongst the top universities in Japanese university rankings. It was ranked 25th in the world in 2011 by École des Mines de Paris and is one of the highest ranked national universities that is not one of the National Seven Universities.Hitotsubashi has strong relationships with overseas universities. There are about 590 international students and 450 researchers from abroad under academic exchange agreements with 83 universities and research institutions, including University of Chicago, the University of Oxford and the University of California.The university's symbol is inspired by Mercury, Roman mythology's god of commerce. Wikipedia.
Takada N.,Hitotsubashi University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016
In line with rising number of collaborations among organizations, many researchers investigated the effects of relational factors (e.g. trust relationship) between parent firms. In contrast with this trend, this paper separately captures management-level (parent firms) and operational-level (projects) in collaborations, and investigates the effects of relationships between these two levels. In this setting, parent firms have responsibility for contract and conflict resolution, and project for R&D activities. The concept of 'project autonomy', which means the extent to authority and freedom of a project to make its own decisions about purpose and procedure about R&D activities, is the indication of one of those relationships. The result of analysis using patent-based measure suggests two points. First, high project autonomy promotes the technological outcome through integration inside projects. Because collaborative projects are composed of members from different organizations, autonomous decisions may set on integration of organizational routines. Second, low project autonomy promotes the integration between projects and own firm, which is needed to commercialize through linking technological outcome with complementary resources. Combining with these two points, it is suggested that these points are not accomplished simultaneously due to project autonomy. High failure rate of technology alliance may be explained from this aspect. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.
News Article | December 9, 2016
The estimate raises the decommissioning part of the total costs to 8 trillion yen ($70 billion) from the current 2 trillion ($17.5 billion) because of surging labor and construction expenses. Panel officials said the numbers could still grow as experts learn more about the damage to the plant's reactors and determine fuel removal methods. Costs for compensation, decontamination of the area and waste storage have also grown significantly. The plant suffered multiple meltdowns following a massive March 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Officials say its decommissioning will take several decades. Rising cost estimates mean an increased burden on consumers. Kunio Ito, a Hitotsubashi University professor of commerce who heads the panel, said it is inevitable that the plant operator, Tokyo Electric Power Co., or TEPCO, will pass on to customers part of the costs. He said the cost estimate for decommissioning is sketchy, but is needed to show the public how much the national project will roughly cost. The estimated increase of 6 trillion yen ($53 billion) is modeled after the example of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant cleanup in Pennsylvania following its 1979 partial meltdown. The TMI cleanup took five years and nearly $1 billon to remove 136 tons of melted fuel from one reactor. The Fukushima plant has twice as much melted fuel in each of three damaged reactors, meaning six times as much melted fuel must to be removed, the government-funded decommissioning and compensation organization said. It came up with the figure of $53 billion by factoring in the more extensive development of robotics and other equipment needed at Fukushima. The estimate does not include the cost of final waste management. The panel has been discussing ways to keep TEPCO alive so it can cover the cost that it is responsible for. TEPCO has already received a government bailout, and the panel urged Fukushima cleanup-related operations to effectively stay under state control until the next review in 2019. The 10-member panel commissioned by the Trade and Industry Ministry plans to urge TEPCO to conduct a drastic restructuring and reforms, possibly with a new business alliance with companies in and outside Japan, to stay afloat. The panel will submit its recommendations in a final report to Trade and Industry Minister Hiroshige Seko later this month. "This is a chance for innovation and cost-cutting to push forward Fukushima's reconstruction," Seko told reporters. "We expect TEPCO to fulfill its responsibility." TEPCO President Naomi Hirose, who was summoned to parliament Friday, pledged to live up to expectations. Explore further: TEPCO's Fukushima compensation cost to reach over $57 bn
Oshio T.,Hitotsubashi University
Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology | Year: 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations among the Japanese elderly. Ordered logit models were estimated to explain life satisfaction with a rich set of explanatory variables, using micro data of 3,277 elderly Japanese adults (1,679 men and 1,598 women) collected from the first-wave sample from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR). This study found that men are less satisfied with life when living without their spouse; women are less satisfied with life when they live and/or have close relations with their parents-in-law; coresidence with an unmarried son is negatively associated with life satisfaction for both men and women; and, a larger number of friends and social activities enhance life satisfaction for women but not for men. Men are more sensitive than women to overall family relations, while the relative importance of social relations is higher for women. These results confirmed gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations in Japan-a nation characterized by a gender-asymmetric society and multi-generational family settings. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Fukao K.,Hitotsubashi University
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2013
Using industry- and micro-level data, this paper examines why Japan's productivity growth has been slow for such a long time and how it can be accelerated in the future. Japan's capital-gross domestic product ratio continued to increase after 1991, and this increase in the capital-gross domestic product ratio must have contributed to the decline in the rate of return on capital in Japan by decreasing the marginal productivity of capital. On the other hand, Japan's accumulation of information and communication technology capital and intangible investment was very slow. Compared with large firms, which enjoyed an acceleration in the total factor productivity growth in recent years, Japanese small- and medium-sized enterprises were left behind in information and communication technology capital and intangible investment, and their productivity growth has been very low. Furthermore, as large firms expanded their supply chains globally and relocated their factories abroad, research and development spillovers from large firms to small- and medium-sized enterprises seem to have declined. © 2013 Japan Center for Economic Research.
Mizanur Rahman Sarker M.,Hitotsubashi University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010
Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients' perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from the Matlab and Hajiganj Upzillas of Chandpur district which are known to be highly contaminated with arsenic in their underground water. Respondents informed that arsenic poisoning causes a wide range of social and psychological problems. Female respondents were less vulnerable in the case of social problems (p < 0.01) and more vulnerable for the psychological problems (p < 0.001) of arsenicosis than male respondents. The results based on logit analysis showed that education (p < 0.01) and household income (p < 0.05) were significantly correlated to respondents' perception about arsenicosis. The arsenicosis related special program (s) needs a clear understanding of people's perception about arsenic exposure for abating the health burden as well as social and psychological problems. © 2010 by the authors.
Oshio T.,Hitotsubashi University
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2016
Background It is well known that individual-level social capital is positively associated with health, but most preceding studies have not fully controlled for an individual's time-invariant attributes, especially unobserved ones. The current study attempted to address how the association between individual-level social capital and health is confounded by an individual's unobserved time-invariant attributes. Methods Data were collected from six-wave nationwide panel surveys conducted from 2005 to 2010, with 162 720 observations from 30 590 individuals. Individual-level bonding and bridging social capital, as well as their associations with self-rated health (SRH) and psychological distress (measured by Kessler 6 scores), were considered. Estimation results of crosssectional, prospective cohort and fixed-effects logistic models were compared. Results The OR of reporting poor SRH responding to high bonding social capital rose from 0.64 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.65) in the pooled cross-sectional model to 0.77 (0.75 to 0.80) in the prospective cohort model and 0.87 (0.82 to 0.92) in the fixed-effects model. Similar patterns were observed for bridging social capital, but the OR of reporting poor SRH became non-significant in the fixed-effects model. Similar results were obtained for psychological distress. Conclusions The results suggest that the association between individual-level social capital and health is overstated by an individual's unobserved time-invariant attributes. The relevance of health in individual-level social capital should be assessed cautiously.
Oshio T.,Hitotsubashi University
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2014
It is widely known that the mental health of middle-aged adults is closely associated with involvement in family caregiving, as well as socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. However, most studies focusing on mental health in adulthood have not fully controlled for time-invariant factors. Moreover, the relative importance of factors associated with mental health has remained largely understudied. In the current study, we employed fixed-effects regression models to examine the manner in which middle-aged adults' mental health is associated with involvement in family caregiving and socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, after controlling for time-invariant factors. Using data from a population-based, six-year panel survey in Japan, we focused on the evolution of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) for 26,522 individuals (12,646 men and 13,876 women) aged 50-59 years in 2005 over the subsequent five years. We found that men and women experienced 0.54 (95% CI 0.44-0.64) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.49-0.66) unit increases in their K6 scores, respectively, when they became involved in care provision for any family member. This magnitude of distress exceeded that associated with any socioeconomic or sociodemographic factor examined in this study. Furthermore, we found that care provision to a mother-in-law had an additional, negative association with mental health for female caregivers, as opposed to men. These findings suggest that more panel studies are needed to examine the correlates of mental health among middle-aged adults. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Nishimura J.,Hitotsubashi University |
Okamuro H.,Hitotsubashi University
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2011
Industrial clusters have attracted increasing attention as important locations of innovation. Therefore, several countries have started promotion policies for industrial clusters. However, there are few empirical studies on cluster policies. This paper examines the effects of the "Industrial Cluster Project" (ICP) in Japan on the R&D productivity of participants, using a unique dataset of 229 small firms, and discusses the conditions necessary for the effective organization of cluster policies. Different from former policy approaches, the ICP aims at building collaborative networks between universities and industries and supports the autonomous development of existing regional industries without direct intervention in the clustering process. Thus far, the ICP is similar to indirect support systems adopted by successful European clusters. Our estimation results suggest that participation in the cluster project alone does not affect R&D productivity. Moreover, research collaboration with a partner in the same cluster region decreases R&D productivity both in terms of the quantity and quality of patents. Therefore, in order to improve the R&D efficiency of local firms, it is also important to construct wide-range collaborative networks within and beyond the clusters, although most clusters focus on the network at a narrowly defined local level. However, cluster participants apply for more patents than others without reducing patent quality when they collaborate with national universities in the same cluster region. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Shioji E.,Hitotsubashi University
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2014
It has been found that the pass-through of the exchange rate and import prices to domestic prices has weakened over time. The most recent research, however, shows that this trend may have been reversed. Recent studies have applied various time series methods to the Japanese data, and estimated responses of domestic prices to the exchange rate and import prices in different time periods. Those studies have found signs that pass-through has made an impressive comeback since the early 2000s. This paper reviews the most recent evidence and discusses its policy implications. I argue that the exchange rate has likely regained its status as an important transmission mechanism of monetary policy to domestic prices. © 2014 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2014 Japan Center for Economic Research.
Nishimura J.,Hitotsubashi University |
Okamuro H.,Hitotsubashi University
Research Policy | Year: 2011
Industrial clusters have attracted considerable attention worldwide for their expected contribution to regional innovation. Recently, policymakers in various countries have developed specific cluster policies. However, there exist few empirical studies on cluster policies. Focusing on the Industrial Cluster Project (ICP) in Japan initiated by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in 2001, we address two research questions on the support programs of the cluster policies: if the project participants who exploit various support programs are more successful in network formation within the cluster than others, and which kind of support program contributes to firm performance. We pay special attention to the differences between direct R&D support and indirect networking/coordination support. The estimation results, which are based on recent original survey data, suggest that cluster participants who exploit support programs (especially indirect support measures) expand the industry-university-government network after participating in the ICP. Moreover, we find that not every support program contributes to firm performance; firms should therefore select the program that is most aligned with their aims. Indirect support programs have an extensive and strong impact on output whereas direct R&D support has only a weak effect. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.