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Jenkins M.,Historic Scotland
Brick and Block Masonry: Trends, Innovations and Challenges - Proceedings of the 16th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, IBMAC 2016 | Year: 2016

Traditionally constructed, solid brick or stone masonry buildings account for a significant proportion of the world’s building stock, up to 30% in some parts of Europe. As pressure to reduce carbon emissions grows so too does the need to improve the thermal performance of solid walled buildings. This paper will examine methods and materials which have been successfully trialed by Historic Scotland in 15 site trials over the last eight years. In order to maintain moisture movement, natural materials such as cellulose, hemp or wood fiber board are often the most appropriate. Some synthetic materials such as aerogel, open cell foam or polystyrene bead have also been used with good success. The intention of the paper is to clearly demonstrate the range of options which exist for retrofitting traditionally constructed masonry in a way which will ensure the long term health of the building © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Pollard E.,P.A. College | Robertson P.,Historic Scotland | Littlewood M.,Orkney Research Center for Archaeology Marine | Geddes G.,Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland RCAHMS
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2014

The Orkney archipelago has a rich heritage that includes the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site, Viking settlements, harbours supplying Hudson's Bay Company ships, and the wartime naval base of Scapa Flow. This rich history has left its mark on the seabed but accurate maps showing the location and character of surviving seabed archaeology do not exist to the same extent as for archaeology on land. ORCA Marine was commissioned by Historic Scotland to work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland in interrogating marine data sets to enhance historic environment records of Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth. These waters were prioritised for their history of maritime activity and to help guide planning and developments in an area highlighted by the Scottish Government for marine renewable energy. A variety of recent and legacy datasets, including wreck databases; sonar data gathered by public sector bodies; aerial photography; seabed cores; Admiralty charts; and local knowledge, were examined for their effectiveness in discovering and interpreting marine cultural heritage cost-effectively. A methodology was developed that enabled marine cultural heritage information to be quickly assimilated within the national and regional inventories for dissemination online. Polygonisation of records resulted in GIS-based shapefiles identifying site extents, and areas of archaeological potential in relation to wrecks, submerged prehistoric landscapes, anchorages and fishing areas. Substantial gaps in data coverage were identified and areas of the seabed have been surveyed at resolutions that are sufficient to detect large upstanding remains such as iron shipwrecks but insufficient to identify smaller archaeological features. Other geophysical datasets have been created at a resolution detailed enough to allow the recognition of smaller anomalies but in some cases processing of the data has removed small anomalies of interest to archaeologists. Intensively used marine areas often contain the most artefactual remains such as historic ports being developed to service the marine renewable industry. Zones of high wave and tidal energy favoured for renewable energy devices include navigation channels and hazards where a large number of wrecks are documented. Transmission cable routes cross deep water where 20th-century wartime losses occurred. Planning and development of infrastructure relating to renewables may also interact with significant built heritage and archaeology on the foreshore and coast edge. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Thomas L.H.,University of Bath | Trevor Forsyth V.,Laue Langevin Institute | Trevor Forsyth V.,Keele University | Sturcova A.,Czech Institute of Macromolecular Chemical | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

In the primary walls of growing plant cells, the glucose polymer cellulose is assembled into long microfibrils a few nanometers in diameter. The rigidity and orientation of these microfibrils control cell expansion; therefore, cellulose synthesis is a key factor in the growth and morphogenesis of plants. Celery (Apium graveolens) collenchyma is a useful model system for the study of primary wall microfibril structure because its microfibrils are oriented with unusual uniformity, facilitating spectroscopic and diffraction experiments. Using a combination of x-ray and neutron scattering methods with vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that celery collenchyma microfibrils were 2.9 to 3.0 nm in mean diameter, with a most probable structure containing 24 chains in cross section, arranged in eight hydrogen-bonded sheets of three chains, with extensive disorder in lateral packing, conformation, and hydrogen bonding. A similar 18-chain structure, and 24-chain structures of different shape, fitted the data less well. Conformational disorder was largely restricted to the surface chains, but disorder in chain packing was not. That is, in position and orientation, the surface chains conformed to the disordered lattice constituting the core of each microfibril. There was evidence that adjacent microfibrils were noncovalently aggregated together over part of their length, suggesting that the need to disrupt these aggregates might be a constraining factor in growth and in the hydrolysis of cellulose for biofuel production. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Torney C.,Historic Scotland | Forster A.M.,Heriot - Watt University | Kennedy C.J.,Historic Scotland | Hyslop E.K.,Historic Scotland
Structural Survey | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of perceptions of suitability of different materials for a repair. The use of highly cementitious materials in the repair of historic masonry is causing great concern due to their incompatibility with adjacent stone and the associated accelerated deterioration which results from their use. The relatively recent development of so-called "restoration mortars" based on a "mix and go" application, combined with the enhanced weathering of stone in a changing climate, may be contributing to the use of "plastic" repair materials on stone across Scotland. Design/methodology/approach: Following a literature review, case studies of repairs are presented to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using such materials, and comparisons are made with the alternative options. Findings: The case studies presented highlight the use of a number of different stone repair materials, sometimes in combination with stone replacement, representing functional and philosophical approaches to masonry repair. However, the research has also highlighted the increasing use of plastic repairs for large-scale repair including façade rendering, which fail to incorporate these systematic and informed approaches, and can ultimately lead to failure of repairs. Originality/value: An evaluation of the current standing of the materials, methods and the extent of this type of repair, is vital for the substantiation of further research, and to enhance the empirical knowledge of in-use performance, longevity and failure. The increasing emergence of restoration mortars, and their manufacture and supply on an international scale, highlights the global impact and relevance of this research. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Wilson L.,Historic Scotland | Rawlinson A.,Glasgow School of Art | Mitchell D.S.,Historic Scotland | McGregor H.C.,Historic Scotland | Parsons R.,CyArk Europe
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2013

The Scottish Ten project is a five-year initiative of the Scottish Government to digitally document significant heritage sites around the world for future generations both in Scotland and overseas. The project is fundamentally grounded in collaboration and is delivered by Historic Scotland and the Digital Design Studio at Glasgow School of Art, in partnership with CyArk. In addition, the Scottish Ten team collaborate with local partners at each site to deliver products which will be of use to site managers in the ongoing conservation, management and interpretation of their sites. The project utilises diverse 3D data capture methods, as appropriate for each site, but the foundation of the documentation lies in terrestrial laser scanning. This paper explores the collaborations, methodologies and gives brief case studies from one Scottish and one international site.


Smith D.E.,University of Oxford | Davies M.H.,Historic Scotland | Brooks C.L.,Coventry University | Mighall T.M.,University of Aberdeen | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2010

Changes in relative sea level (RSL) and their effect on the distribution of human activity in the Forth lowland, Scotland, UK between ca 11,700 and ca 2000 calibrated years before present (BP) are examined. Block uplift of shorelines occurred over a longer period than previously thought, continuing to at least around 4700 BP. New graphs of RSL change, based upon an analysis of previous work and evidence from new sites using standard morphological and stratigraphical analyses, support a fall in RSL in the early Holocene during which buried estuarine surfaces were formed, followed by a marked reversal on a centennial, perhaps even decadal, scale sometime around 9900-9500 BP from a falling sequence to a rising one. There may have been a short-lived fluctuation in the rising RSL ca 8300 BP, and the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami of ca 8100 BP was widespread in the lowland. The rising RSL culminated at the Main Postglacial Shoreline, reached ca 7800 BP, when Mean High Water Spring Tides (MHWS) lay within the range 14.6-16.5. m British Ordnance Datum (OD) in the western lowland. This is the highest published Holocene RSL in Britain and Ireland. The subsequent fall in RSL stabilised at a second shoreline, the Blairdrummond Shoreline, from which regression was occurring at ca 4700 BP. RSL later fell to a lower shoreline at ca 3900 BP before reaching present levels within the last three millennia. Comparison between the empirical evidence for RSL change in this area and glacial isostatic adjustment models indicates both similarities and differences. Records of archaeological sites and artefacts in the lowland and surrounding areas are discussed. Maps showing the evolution of the estuary are compared with the distribution of Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age activity. Evidence for Mesolithic people indicates the opportunistic use of available resources as RSL rose and the estuary expanded to its maximum extent. Neolithic people were also attracted to the estuary, building at least one platform from which to exploit resources and accumulating middens along the shoreline for over 2000 years. Bronze Age people were present across the emerging saltmarshes and mudflats before raised peat mosses, already extensive at the head of the lowland, developed more widely. In the Iron Age, the area could be accessed both between the peat mosses of the western lowland and across newly emergent land in the east as RSL continued to fall. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bates C.R.,University of St. Andrews | Lawrence M.,Advanced Underwater Surveys Ltd ADUS | Dean M.,Advanced Underwater Surveys Ltd ADUS | Robertson P.,Historic Scotland
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology | Year: 2011

Rapid advances in geophysical techniques over the past decade have provided the maritime archaeological community with significant opportunities for re-defining the procedures for wreck-site mapping, evaluation and monitoring. The techniques which offer most potential for high-resolution survey are acoustic-based and include sidescan sonar, swath-bathymetry sonar and multibeam sonar. These techniques were tested on an artificial test-site in Plymouth Sound and over the wreck of the Stirling Castle. Results demonstrate that the techniques can provide the maritime archaeologist with the opportunity to rapidly and cost-effectively map and monitor small, centimetric changes on sites, with the potential for long-term monitoring and management. © 2009 The Authors © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology © 2010 The Nautical Archaeology Society.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 243.02K | Year: 2012

The proposal develops an interdisciplinary system to quantify risk of historic buildings and archaeological sites to driving rain and flooding as caused by climate change; it will evaluate structural vulnerability by defining adequate impact indicators and propose adaptation strategies classified by increased resilience against loss of significance. Project activities are set within the framework of risk management and uncertainty methods.\nThe proposal addresses how the causes of damage or material change to cultural heritage can be better understood, and when is material change acceptable and damage unacceptable. \nThis requires investigation of the nature of changes and transformation in materials and of the resilience and adaptation capacity of the built heritage. The objectives of the proposal are:\n- Definition of criteria and protocols to identify acceptable limits of damage; define consistent protocols for modelling material change; use of risk, monitoring and simulation to inform life-cycle and cost/benefits studies and new or improved conservation interventions.\n- Impact of flooding, rising water level, driving rain and thermal cycles on structural integrity of historic buildings and archaeological sites\n- Assessment of novel adaptation techniques to be implemented to enhance resilience of historic buildings and sites to climate change impacts. \nThe collaboration of structural and environmental modellers and specialists in cultural heritage, working on specific case studies and supported by professional practitioners and the heritage institutional bodies, ensures robust results applicable in practice.\nRoughly dressed, rubble masonry, earth structures, infilled in timber frames, are the chosen constitutive materials as they are particularly vulnerable at joint and footing level to driving rain and flood. Hence effects of exacerbated structural damage caused by environmental agents can be successfully measured within the project timeframe. An overall approach based on extreme events statistical analysis and quantification of uncertainty will inform all aspects of the research, so that reliability will be in-built in the evaluation of the risk and adaptation measures The research will be case study based to facilitate direct feedback of results into practice. On-site monitoring and laboratory tests will be conducted, considering the combined effects of driving rain and flooding. \nThe proposed case studies areas are: Tewkesbury, scheduled area at south end of town near the Abbey; Deerhurst, archaeological sites and significant historic buildings; Cottown, Perthshire, cob walls compromised by flooding; Winchester cathedral crypt and Winchester College; York, Lendal Bridge towers and buildings on the Eastern riverbank; Bodiam Castle. The case studies have been chosen according to flooding hazard and to the diversity of age, materials, construction techniques, significance and historical documentation of the heritage buildings and archeological remains in the six areas. Their continued occupation through time allows to: gain historical perspective by looking at past adaptations to documented climate changes; investigate effects on current risk; define urgency of adaptation. Research tasks cover:\n-Survey of buildings and stakeholders of study area to identify selected buildings for in depth study\n-Study of secondary literature to identify significance of historic climate change\n-Flood and driving rain probability analysis and scenarios\n- Laser scanning and restitution of the building at different scales \n-On site monitoring and lab testing to define damage thresholds\n-Hydraulic an structural modelling\n-Assessment of resilience and validation of adaptation measures. \n-Generalisation and dissemination of results through drafting of guidelines.


Oglethorpe M.,Historic Scotland
CESB 2013 PRAGUE - Central Europe Towards Sustainable Building 2013: Sustainable Building and Refurbishment for Next Generations | Year: 2013

As one of the world's earliest industrialising nations, Scotland has a wealth of industrial heritage. However, as is the case in Eastern Europe, much of it has been put in increasing danger as a result of a combination of rapid de-industrialisation, growing pressure from developers, and sustained neglect. In many cases, demolition and clearance of industrial sites has been the default position, but as a consequence of enhanced statutory protection and regulation, together with greater awareness of climate-change issues, the chances of survival have improved. A further reason for optimism is the Scottish Government's national performance framework [1], which defines its objectives in terms of 16 specific national outcomes, several of which have the potential to highlight and build upon the value of our industrial past. The purpose of this paper is to focus on two of these outcomes, both of which have an influence on the sustainable refurbishment of buildings.


McCarthy M.J.,University of Dundee | Dhir R.K.,University of Dundee | Caliskan S.,University of Dundee | Kashif Ashraf M.,Historic Scotland
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings | Year: 2012

The paper describes a study carried out to examine the effect of self-compacting concrete (SCC) on the lateral pressure on formwork. This comprised two series: (a) control tests, with SCC and comparative concretes (Portland cement (PC) and superplasticised, high-consistence (SP-HC)) cast in 8.0 m columns and walls, and measurements made of concrete and pore water pressures (ten elements) and (b) site tests, with similar properties considered on actual reinforced SCC members during their construction (seven elements). In the control tests, concrete was poured from above to the rising surface at slow (3.0 m/h) and fast (80.0 m/h) rates of rise (with compaction used in the PC and SPHC concretes only). The results from these indicate that maximum concrete pressures with SCC were slightly lower than those of the comparative concretes at both rates of rise and in columns and walls. Pore water pressures were less than concrete pressures, except with the fast rate of rise for SCC and SP-HC concrete, where the reverse occurred (with the concretes having similar values or SCC slightly higher), which seemed to relate to the concrete properties/ pour details and differences in concrete/pore water pressure measurement methods. Maximum pressures for SCC in the control tests were less than hydrostatic and those calculated using the CIRIA report 108 guidance method (Clear and Harrison, 1985). For the site tests, where base-to-top pouring was mainly used (i.e. concrete was passed by way of a hopper at the top of the formwork through a pipe running to its base and kept in place throughout the pour) maximum pressures for SCC were found to exceed hydrostatic in some cases, indicating that this method may give higher pressures. To investigate this further, data from the literature covering SCC pressure measurements on formwork were examined. These showed general agreement with the results of the current study using base-to-top pours and where concrete pumping from below had been adopted, which tended to be at the upper end of the maximum pressure range for SCC. Consideration is given to how SCC may fit within CIRIA 108 for estimating concrete pressure on formwork.

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