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Munoz-Espin D.,Tumor Suppression Group | Canamero M.,Histopathology Unit | Maraver A.,Tumor Suppression Group | Gomez-Lopez G.,Bioinformatics Unit | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Sainz B.,Stem Cells and Cancer Group | Sainz B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Alcala S.,Stem Cells and Cancer Group | Alcala S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 19 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2015

Objectives The tumour stroma/microenvironment not only provides structural support for tumour development, but more importantly it provides cues to cancer stem cells (CSCs) that regulate their self-renewal and metastatic potential. This is certainly true for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), where tumour-associated fibroblasts, pancreatic stellate cells and immune cells create an abundant paracrine niche for CSCs via microenvironment-secreted factors. Thus understanding the role that tumour stroma cells play in PDAC development and CSC biology is of utmost importance. Design Microarray analyses, tumour microarray immunohistochemical assays, in vitro co-culture experiments, recombinant protein treatment approaches and in vivo intervention studies were performed to understand the role that the immunomodulatory cationic antimicrobial peptide 18/LL-37 (hCAP-18/LL-37) plays in PDAC biology. Results We found that hCAP-18/LL-37 was strongly expressed in the stroma of advanced primary and secondary PDAC tumours and is secreted by immune cells of the stroma (eg, tumour-associated macrophages) in response to tumour growth factor-β1 and particularly CSC-secreted Nodal/ActivinA. Treatment of pancreatic CSCs with recombinant LL-37 increased pluripotencyassociated gene expression, self-renewal, invasion and tumourigenicity via formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2)- and P2X purinoceptor 7 receptor (P2X7R)-dependent mechanisms, which could be reversed by inhibiting these receptors. Importantly, in a genetically engineered mouse model of K-Ras-driven pancreatic tumourigenesis, we also showed that tumour formation was inhibited by either reconstituting these mice with bone marrow from cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (ie, murine homologue of hCAP-18/LL-37) knockout mice or by pharmacologically inhibiting FPR2 and P2X7R. Conclusions Thus, hCAP-18/LL-37 represents a previously unrecognised PDAC microenvironment factor that plays a critical role in pancreatic CSC-mediated tumourigenesis.


De Castro I.P.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Aguirre-Portoles C.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Fernandez-Miranda G.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Canamero M.,Histopathology Unit | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Aurora-A is a kinase involved in the formation and maturation of the mitotic spindle and chromosome segregation. This kinase is frequently overexpressed in human cancer, and its activity may confer resistance to antitumoral drugs such as Taxol. Inhibition of Aurora-A results in mitotic defects, and this kinase is considered as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer. Nevertheless, the specific requirements for this kinase in adult mammalian tissues remain unclear. Conditional genetic ablation of Aurora-A in adult tissues results in polyploid cells that display a DNA-damage-like response characterized by the upregulation of p53 and the cell-cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. This is accompanied by apoptotic, differentiation, or senescence markers in a tissue-specific manner. Therapeutic elimination of Aurora-A prevents the progression of skin and mammary gland tumors. However, this is not due to significant levels of apoptosis or senescence, but because Aurora-A-deficient tumors accumulate polyploid cells with limited proliferative potential. Thus, Aurora-A is required for tumor formation in vivo, and the differential response observed in various tissues might have relevant implications in current therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting this kinase in the treatment of human cancer. ©2013 AACR.


PubMed | Institute Medicina Legal I Ciencies Forenses Of Catalonia, Institute Medicina Legal Ciencies Mediques Catalonia, University of Girona, Histopathology Unit and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Sudden unexplained death may be the first manifestation of an unknown inherited cardiac disease. Current genetic technologies may enable the unraveling of an etiology and the identification of relatives at risk. The aim of our study was to define the etiology of natural deaths, younger than 50 years of age, and to investigate whether genetic defects associated with cardiac diseases could provide a potential etiology for the unexplained cases.Our cohort included a total of 789 consecutive cases (77.19% males) <50 years old (average 38.612.2 years old) who died suddenly from non-violent causes. A comprehensive autopsy was performed according to current forensic guidelines. During autopsy a cause of death was identified in most cases (81.1%), mainly due to cardiac alterations (56.87%). In unexplained cases, genetic analysis of the main genes associated with sudden cardiac death was performed using Next Generation Sequencing technology. Genetic analysis was performed in suspected inherited diseases (cardiomyopathy) and in unexplained death, with identification of potentially pathogenic variants in nearly 50% and 40% of samples, respectively.Cardiac disease is the most important cause of sudden death, especially after the age of 40. Close to 10% of cases may remain unexplained after a complete autopsy investigation. Molecular autopsy may provide an explanation for a significant part of these unexplained cases. Identification of genetic variations enables genetic counseling and undertaking of preventive measures in relatives at risk.


Rodriguez-Diez E.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Quereda V.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Bellutti F.,University of Vienna | Prchal-Murphy M.,University of Vienna | And 9 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Cdk4 and Cdk6 are related protein kinases that bind D-type cyclins and regulate cell-cycle progression. Cdk4/6 inhibitors are currently being used in advanced clinical trials and show great promise against many types of tumors. Cdk4 and Cdk6 are inhibited by INK4 proteins, which exert tumor-suppressing functions. To test the significance of this inhibitory mechanism, we generated knock-in mice that express a Cdk6 mutant (Cdk6 R31C) insensitive to INK4-mediated inhibition. Cdk6R/Rmice display altered development of the hematopoietic system without enhanced tumor susceptibility, either in the presence or absence of p53. Unexpectedly, Cdk6 R31C impairs the potential of hematopoietic progenitors to repopulate upon adoptive transfer or after 5-fluorouracil-induced damage. The defects are overcome by eliminating sensitivity of cells to INK4 inhibitors by introducing the INK4-insensitive Cdk4 R24C allele, and INK4-resistant mice are more susceptible to hematopoietic and endocrine tumors. In BCR-ABL-transformed hematopoietic cells, Cdk6 R31C causes increased binding of p16INK4ato wild-type Cdk4, whereas cells harboring Cdk4 R24C and Cdk6 R31C are fully insensitive to INK4 inhibitors, resulting in accelerated disease onset. Our observations reveal that Cdk4 and Cdk6 cooperate in hematopoietic tumor development and suggest a role for Cdk6 in sequestering INK4 proteins away from Cdk4. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.


Quereda V.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Porlan E.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Canamero M.,Histopathology Unit | Dubus P.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Malumbres M.,Cell Division and Cancer Group
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2016

Cell-cycle inhibitors of the Ink4 and Cip/Kip families are involved in cellular senescence and tumor suppression. These inhibitors are individually dispensable for the cell cycle and inactivation of specific family members results in increased proliferation and enhanced susceptibility to tumor development. We have now analyzed the consequences of eliminating a substantial part of the cell-cycle inhibitory activity in the cell by generating a mouse model, which combines the absence of both p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 proteins with the endogenous expression of a Cdk4 R24C mutant insensitive to Ink4 inhibitors. Pairwise combination of Cdk4 R24C, p21-null and p27-null alleles results in frequent hyperplasias and tumors, mainly in cells of endocrine origin such as pituitary cells and in mesenchymal tissues. Interestingly, complete abrogation of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 in Cdk4 R24C mutant mice results in a different phenotype characterized by perinatal death accompanied by general hypoplasia in most tissues. This phenotype correlates with increased replicative stress in developing tissues such as the nervous system and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Partial inhibition of Cdk4/6 rescues replicative stress signaling as well as p53 induction in the absence of cell-cycle inhibitors. We conclude that one of the major physiological activities of cell-cycle inhibitors is to prevent replicative stress during development. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Ibrahim H.H.H.,Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit | Ahmad M.S.,Al Farwaniya Hospital | Eskaf W.A.,Histopathology Unit | Schutz P.,Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology | Year: 2011

A case of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the tongue is reported. The patient was a 60-year-old woman. She underwent extended hemiglossectomy, neck dissection and reconstruction of the defect with radial forearm microvascular free flap. Etiology, histopathology, differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of GISTs are discussed. The absence of any previous report in the English-language literature about the occurrence of GIST in the tongue is emphasized. © 2011 Mosby, Inc.


Eguren M.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Porlan E.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Porlan E.,University of Valencia | Manchado E.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | And 5 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The E3-ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is essential for endoreduplication but its relevance in the mammalian mitotic cell cycle is still unclear. Here we show that genetic ablation of Cdh1 in the developing nervous system results in hypoplastic brain and hydrocephalus. These defects correlate with enhanced levels of Cdh1 substrates and increased entry into the S phase in neural progenitors. However, cell division is prevented in the absence of Cdh1 due to hyperactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases, replicative stress, induction of p53, G2 arrest and apoptotic death of these progenitor cells. Concomitant ablation of p53 rescues apoptosis but not replicative stress, resulting in the presence of damaged neurons throughout the adult brain. These data indicate that the inactivation of Cdh1 in vivo results in replicative stress, cell cycle arrest and cell death, supporting recent therapeutic proposals aimed to inhibit the APC/C in tumours. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


PubMed | University of Bordeaux Segalen, Histopathology Unit and Cell Division and Cancer Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell death and differentiation | Year: 2016

Cell-cycle inhibitors of the Ink4 and Cip/Kip families are involved in cellular senescence and tumor suppression. These inhibitors are individually dispensable for the cell cycle and inactivation of specific family members results in increased proliferation and enhanced susceptibility to tumor development. We have now analyzed the consequences of eliminating a substantial part of the cell-cycle inhibitory activity in the cell by generating a mouse model, which combines the absence of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) proteins with the endogenous expression of a Cdk4 R24C mutant insensitive to Ink4 inhibitors. Pairwise combination of Cdk4 R24C, p21-null and p27-null alleles results in frequent hyperplasias and tumors, mainly in cells of endocrine origin such as pituitary cells and in mesenchymal tissues. Interestingly, complete abrogation of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) in Cdk4 R24C mutant mice results in a different phenotype characterized by perinatal death accompanied by general hypoplasia in most tissues. This phenotype correlates with increased replicative stress in developing tissues such as the nervous system and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Partial inhibition of Cdk4/6 rescues replicative stress signaling as well as p53 induction in the absence of cell-cycle inhibitors. We conclude that one of the major physiological activities of cell-cycle inhibitors is to prevent replicative stress during development.


PubMed | Experimental Therapeutics Programme, Bioinformatics Unit, Telomeres and Telomerase Group, Tumor Suppression Group and Histopathology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

Reprogramming of differentiated cells into pluripotent cells can occur in vivo, but the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. Senescence is a cellular response to damage, characterized by abundant production of cytokines and other secreted factors that, together with the recruitment of inflammatory cells, result in tissue remodeling. Here, we show that in vivo expression of the reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC (OSKM) in mice leads to senescence and reprogramming, both coexisting in close proximity. Genetic and pharmacological analyses indicate that OSKM-induced senescence requires the Ink4a/Arf locus and, through the production of the cytokine interleukin-6, creates a permissive tissue environment for in vivo reprogramming. Biological conditions linked to senescence, such as tissue injury or aging, favor in vivo reprogramming by OSKM. These observations may be relevant for tissue repair.

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