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Jansen M.,Cork University Hospital | Saleh S.,Royal Chesterfield Hospital | Bolster M.,University College Cork | O'Donnell A.,Cork University Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2010

We present four patients with vasculitis manifesting with unusual clinical or pathological features, generating surgical problems. Two cases presented with pulmonary hypertension, with investigations and radiological evidence prompting clinical suspicion of pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease. First case, with an antecedant history of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), demonstrated following "embolectomy", WG involving the large pulmonary elastic arteries. The second case of inoperable "pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease" was subsequently found at limited post mortem to have giant cell arteritis, which affected widespread small peripheral pulmonary arterial vessels. The other two cases were of aortitis occurring in the background of immune-mediated disease, which had been treated with aggressive immunosuppression regimens. The first of these was a case of Cogan's syndrome complicated by descending aortitis, a rarely reported phenomenon, with co-existent acute endocarditis of the aortic valve leaflets. Most cases of endocarditis in this context occur secondary to and in continuity with ascending aortitis. That this case, and a case of ascending aortitis occurring in the context of relapsing polychondritis occurred in the face of aggressive immunosuppression with an apparent clinical response, underscores the need to not accept a clinical picture at face value. This has implications for clinical management, particularly in the follow-up of surgical prosthetic devices such as grafts which may be used in these cases. All four cases emphasise the continued importance of histology and the post-mortem examination in elucidating previously undetected or unsuspected disease. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Kumar V.,Nephrology Translational and Regenerative Medicine | Saikia U.N.,Histopathology | Medhi B.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Jha V.,Nephrology Translational and Regenerative Medicine
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2015

Background & objectives: Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in irradiated diabetic rat model has transiently shown to decrease blood glucose level. This study examines the effect of high dose and multiple injections of MSCs on glycemic profile, their localization and regeneration of islet in diabetic Wistar rat. Methods: The study was carried out in male Wistar rats categorized into three groups (n=6, in each group): Group 1 as control, group 2 streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) induced diabetic group and group 3 experimental group;5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelled allogenic MSCs were injected in the non-irradiated diabetic rat of the experimental group through tail vein. The blood glucose profile was subsequently monitored at regular intervals. Rats were sacrificed on day 45 and pancreas was examined for localization of BrdU labelled stem cells by immunofluorescence and islet-neogenesis by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of MSCs in the experimental group (p<0.001). The presence of BrdU labelled MSCs in islet suggested their localization in the pancreas. Co-expression of anti-BrdU and anti-insulin antibody indicated trans-differentiation / fusion into insulin producing cells evidenced by significant increase in total number of islet (p=0.004) and insulin positive cells (p<0.0001) in experimental group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the MSCs administration in non-irradiated diabetic Wistar rat reduced hyperglycaemia and was accompanied by increased islet-neogengesis, possibly through trans- differentiation/fusion. © 2015, Indian Council of Medical Research. All rights reserved.


Al-Qahtani K.H.,King Saud University | Al Asiri M.,Comprehensive Cancer Center | Tunio M.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center | Aljohani N.J.,Endocrinology and Thyroid Oncology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2015

Background: Papillary Microcarcinoma (PMC) of thyroid is a rare type of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which according to the World Health Organization measures 1.0 cm or less. The gold standard of treatment of PMC is still controversy. Our aim was to contribute in resolving the debate on the therapeutic choices of the surgical and adjuvant I-131 (RAI) treatment in PMC. Methods: From 2000 to 2012, 326 patients were found to have PMC and were retrospectively reviewed for clinicopathological characteristics, treatment outcomes and prognostic factors. Results: Mean age of cohort was 42.6 years (range: 18-76) and the mean tumor size was 0.61 cm ± 0.24; lymph node involvement was seen in 12.9 % of cases. Median follow up period was 8.05 years (1.62-11.4). Total 23 all site recurrences (7.13 %) were observed; more observed in patients without I-131 ablation (p <0.0001). Ten year DFS rates were 89.6 %. Cox regression Model analysis revealed size, histopathologic variants, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphovascular space invasion, nodal status, and adjuvant RAI ablation the important prognostic factors affecting DFS. Discussion: Despite excellent DFS rates, a small proportion of patients with PMC develop recurrences after treatment. Adjuvant RAI therapy improves DFS in PMC patients with aggressive histopathologic variants, multifocality, ETE, LVSI, tumor size (> 0.5 cm) and lymph node involvement. Failure of RAI ablation to decrease risk in N1a/b supports prophylactic central neck dissection during thyroidectomy, however more trials are warranted. Conclusion: Adjuvant I-131 ablation following thyroidectomy in PMC patients, particularly with poor prognostic factors improves DFS rates. © 2015 AL-Qahtani et al.


PubMed | Histopathology, King Abdulaziz University, King Saud University, Comprehensive Cancer Center and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale | Year: 2015

Papillary Microcarcinoma (PMC) of thyroid is a rare type of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which according to the World Health Organization measures 1.0cm or less. The gold standard of treatment of PMC is still controversy. Our aim was to contribute in resolving the debate on the therapeutic choices of the surgical and adjuvant I-131 (RAI) treatment in PMC.From 2000 to 2012, 326 patients were found to have PMC and were retrospectively reviewed for clinicopathological characteristics, treatment outcomes and prognostic factors.Mean age of cohort was 42.6years (range: 18-76) and the mean tumor size was 0.61cm0.24; lymph node involvement was seen in 12.9% of cases. Median follow up period was 8.05years (1.62-11.4). Total 23 all site recurrences (7.13%) were observed; more observed in patients without I-131 ablation (p <0.0001). Ten year DFS rates were 89.6%. Cox regression Model analysis revealed size, histopathologic variants, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphovascular space invasion, nodal status, and adjuvant RAI ablation the important prognostic factors affecting DFS.Despite excellent DFS rates, a small proportion of patients with PMC develop recurrences after treatment. Adjuvant RAI therapy improves DFS in PMC patients with aggressive histopathologic variants, multifocality, ETE, LVSI, tumor size (> 0.5 cm) and lymph node involvement. Failure of RAI ablation to decrease risk in N1a/b supports prophylactic central neck dissection during thyroidectomy, however more trials are warranted.Adjuvant I-131 ablation following thyroidectomy in PMC patients, particularly with poor prognostic factors improves DFS rates.


Hartmann S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Doring C.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Agostinelli C.,University of Bologna | Portscher-Kim S.-J.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 16 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumours, which are fatal in 20% of the patients and usually occur in secondary lymphoid organs or extranodal localizations. Due to the rareness of these tumours, only few studies have been conducted on molecular level. In the present study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of 31 FDC sarcomas and identified two subgroups, one with high miRNA expression and the other group with low miRNA expression levels. The first group showed a strong similarity to fibroblasts and myopericytomas, whereas the second group was more closely related to FDCs from Castleman's disease. Both groups showed important differences compared with myeloid-derived dendritic cells, confirming mesenchymal origin of FDCs and their derived sarcomas. The two FDC sarcoma groups did not differ on morphological grounds, mitotic activity or BRAF mutation status. However, patients of group I presented a tendency to a shorter overall survival and more frequent podoplanin expression by immunohistochemistry. The importance of these newly recognized FDC sarcoma subgroups in terms of clinical behaviour and therapeutic implications should be assessed in a larger cohort in future studies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Barcelona, Italian National Cancer Institute and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular cancer research : MCR | Year: 2017

Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors (MTs) with variable clinical, morphologic and phenotypic characteristics. Transcriptome analysis was performed on multiple FDC sarcomas and compared to other MTs, microdissected Castleman FDCs, and normal fibroblasts. Using unsupervised analysis, FDC sarcomas clustered with microdissected FDCs, distinct from other MTs and fibroblasts. The specific endowment of FDC-related gene expression programs in FDC sarcomas emerged by applying a gene signature of differentially expressed genes (n=1,289) between microdissected FDCs and fibroblasts. Supervised analysis comparing FDC sarcomas with microdissected FDCs and other MTs identified 370 and 2,927 differentially expressed transcripts, respectively, and based on pathway enrichment analysis ascribed to signal transduction, chromatin organization, and extracellular matrix organization programs. Since the transcriptome of FDC sarcomas retained similarity with FDCs, the immune landscape of FDC sarcoma was investigated by applying the CIBERSORT algorithm to FDC sarcomas and non-FDC MTs, and demonstrated that FDC sarcomas were enriched in T follicular helper (Tfh) and T regulatory (Treg) cell populations, as confirmed in situ by immunohistochemistry. The enrichment in specific T-cell subsets prompted investigating the mRNA expression of the inhibitory immune receptor PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, which were found to be significantly upregulated in FDC sarcomas as compared with other MTs, a finding also confirmed in situ. Here it is demonstrated for the first time the transcriptional relationship of FDC sarcomas with non-malignant FDCs and their distinction from other MTs.The current study provides evidence of a peculiar immune microenvironment associated with FDC sarcomas that may have clinical utility.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Tissue is a group or layer of cells which perform a particular function and contain necessary biological information. Tissue samples are used for cancer diagnosis and analysis, where it captures the biological context of the disease. It conforms the presence of cancer by examining the tissue sample under microscope by a trained physician called a pathologist. Histopathology is a study of disease in a tissue which can be done by small biopsies, fine needle aspiration cytology and open biopsy or surgery. The three major types of tissue diagnosis, Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and In situ hybridization. H&E stains work well with a variety of fixatives and displays a broad range of cytoplasmic, nuclear, and extracellular matrix features. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the most useful new diagnostic markers where proteins are stained using antibodies. And In situ hybridization identifies specific nucleotide sequences in the cells and tissues. Tissue Diagnosis technique is said to be one of the gold standards set in cancer diagnosis and is the crucial driver in the market. Tissue based diagnosis technique helps to determine the cause and effect of the disease in a patient. Due to unhealthy lifestyles of population the rate of cancer incidences is growing each year and so is driving the market for tissue based diagnosis. Cancer diagnosis at early stages and treatment will lead to better chances of survival and the market for diagnostics will show significant growth by forcing labs to increase efficiency in the diagnosis process to maximize health securities in patients. In developed countries there is enough health awareness as compared to the developing countries for which various factors are responsible as economic factors, low health literacy and increasing regulatory requirements hamper the market opportunities and growth. Tissue Diagnostic market is classified on the basis of product, technology, disease and end users. Based on the product type the global tissue diagnostic market is segmented into following: Based on the application the global tissue diagnostic market is segmented into following: Based on the disease the global tissue diagnostic market is segmented into following: Based on the end user the global tissue diagnostic market is segmented into following: Tissue Diagnostic market is a growing market due to increasing cancer awareness campaigns, advance research technology, improving healthcare infrastructure is leading to better market opportunities in tissue diagnostics. Personalized healthcare and companion diagnostics, IVD Development and Digital Pathology and Integrated Diagnostics are the major concerns of the tissue diagnostic market which are giving positive results and address health issues. Significant research is being carried out giving rise to the emerging technologies to meet the medical needs in the tissue diagnostic market. Tissue diagnostic market is also segmented into pre-analytical and advance stains on the basis of the examination time. Depending on geographic regions, global radiofrequency ablation system market is segmented into seven key regions: North America, South America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Pacific, Japan, and Middle East & Africa. The global tissue market is segmented into seven regions amongst which North America is the largest tissue diagnostic market due to prevalence of cancer and health literacy supported by modern diagnostic techniques available. Europe is observed to be the second largest regional segment in the global tissue diagnostics market. The key market players in global tissue diagnostic market are F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC, Abbott Laboratories, Agilent Technologies, BioGenex, Danaher Corporation, Cell Signaling Technology and Ventana Medical Systems.


News Article | November 24, 2015
Site: phys.org

Histopathology of Helicobacter pylori infection in a gastric foveolar pit demonstrated in endoscopic gastric biopsy. Credit: Wikipedia. Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria that lives in the gut of more than 50 per cent of the world's population, and is the most common bacterial infection worldwide. It is responsible for most peptic ulcers and is a significant risk factor for stomach cancer. Professors Peter Tyler and Gary Evans, and Dr Keith Clinch from Victoria's Ferrier Research Institute, have worked with Professor Vern Schramm from Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York to develop 10 antibiotic candidates for treating the bacteria. "Developing a new antibiotic treatment for this bacteria has become important because of the development of resistance to drugs, the use of which tends to wipe out much of the gut's healthy bacteria as well," says Professor Tyler. "Our compounds target a pathway specific to this bacterium, by blocking the enzyme methylthioadenosine nucleosidase and interfering with production of an essential bacterial membrane component. This means we can selectively halt the growth of this bacterium, while not affecting other beneficial gut microbes." All ten of the antibiotic candidates identified by the research team have been proven to prevent the bacteria's growth at concentrations 16 to 2,000-fold lower than antibiotics commonly used to treat Helicobacter pylori infections. The research team has spent the past three years in the lab synthesising and testing the drug candidates, with their findings recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society. "This is a great achievement for Ferrier scientists, who have been heavily involved in the development of the compounds", says Director of the Ferrier Research Institute Professor Richard Furneaux.


PubMed | Histopathology, University of Barcelona, University of Bologna, Goethe University Frankfurt and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) | Year: 2016

Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumours, which are fatal in 20% of the patients and usually occur in secondary lymphoid organs or extranodal localizations. Due to the rareness of these tumours, only few studies have been conducted on molecular level. In the present study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of 31 FDC sarcomas and identified two subgroups, one with high miRNA expression and the other group with low miRNA expression levels. The first group showed a strong similarity to fibroblasts and myopericytomas, whereas the second group was more closely related to FDCs from Castlemans disease. Both groups showed important differences compared with myeloid-derived dendritic cells, confirming mesenchymal origin of FDCs and their derived sarcomas. The two FDC sarcoma groups did not differ on morphological grounds, mitotic activity or BRAF mutation status. However, patients of group I presented a tendency to a shorter overall survival and more frequent podoplanin expression by immunohistochemistry. The importance of these newly recognized FDC sarcoma subgroups in terms of clinical behaviour and therapeutic implications should be assessed in a larger cohort in future studies.

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