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Crumlin, Ireland

Wu M.K.,McGill University | Cotter M.B.,Histology Laboratory | Pears J.,Our Ladys Childrens Hospital | McDermott M.B.,Histology Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Human Pathology | Year: 2016

We report a 7-month-old female infant with a multicystic left renal tumor having histologic features predominantly of a cystic nephroma, but with microscopic cellular foci which contained atypical mitotic figures and anaplastic nuclei. Immunohistochemistry showed strong p53 reactivity in the anaplastic region. DICER1 sequencing confirmed 2 mutations: germ line mutation c.2450delC and c.5438A > G somatic within the tumor. Despite an initial consideration of cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, the presence of anaplasia ruled that possibility out, as this is not an acceptable feature for that diagnosis. Moreover, the germ line DICER1 mutation prompted consideration that this case represents a unique "nascent" anaplastic sarcoma of kidney, and further immunohistochemical workup demonstrated cytoplasmic, but no nuclear WT-1 reactivity in the cellular foci. The importance of meticulous sampling of cystic lesions is highlighted by this unprecedented case, which lends support to the recent recognition of anaplastic sarcoma of kidney as a DICER1-associated cancer. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Kelly L.C.,The National Childrens Research Center | Lazaro A.,The National Childrens Research Center | O'Sullivan M.J.,The National Childrens Research Center | O'Sullivan M.J.,Histology Laboratory | O'Sullivan M.J.,Trinity College Dublin
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

Non-coding RNAs have received a lot of attention in recent years, with especial focus on microRNAs (miRNAs), so much so that in the just over two decades since the first miRNA, Lin4, was described, almost 40,000 publications about miRNAs have been generated. Less than 500 of these focus on sarcoma, and only a fraction of those on sarcomas of childhood specifically, with some of these representing observational studies and others containing functionally validated data. This is a group of cancers for which prognosis is often poor and therapeutic options limited, and it is especially in these areas that strides in understanding the role of non-coding RNAs and miRNAs in particular are to be welcomed. This review deals with the main forms of pediatric sarcoma, exploring what is known about the diagnostic and prognostic profiles of miRNAs in these tumours and where novel therapeutic options might present themselves for further exploration. © 2015, by the authors.

Lynn M.,National Childrens Research Center | Wang Y.,Harvard University | Slater J.,Harvard University | Shah N.,University College Dublin | And 8 more authors.
Diagnostic Molecular Pathology | Year: 2013

Ewing sarcoma family tumors are aggressive sarcomas of childhood and adolescence with continuing poor outcomes. Decades of research on the characteristics of the often solitaryknown oncogenic-genomic aberration in Ewing sarcoma family tumors, namely a TET-ETS fusion, have provided little advancement in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma or treatment thereof. In this study, the highresolution single-nucleotide polymorphism technology was used to identify additional/secondary copy-number alterations (CNAs) in Ewing sarcoma that might elucidate the aggressive biology of this sarcoma. We compared paired constitutional and tumor DNA samples. Commonly known genomic alterations including gain of 1q and chromosome 8 were the most frequently detected changes in this study. In addition, deletions and loss of heterozygosity were identified in 10q, 11p, and 17p. Furthermore, tumor-specific CNAs were identified not only in genes previously known to be of interest, including CDKN2A, but also in genes not previously associated with Ewing sarcoma, including SOX6 and PTEN. Selected array-based findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical studies, or sequencing. The results highlight an unexpected level of cytogenetic complexity associated with several of the samples, 2 of which contained TP53 mutations. In summary, our high-resolution genome-wide copy-number data identify several novel CNAs associated with Ewing sarcoma, which are promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies in this aggressive sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Uwineza A.,National Childrens Research Center | Gill H.,National Center for Medical Genetics | Buckley P.,Molecular Pathology Laboratory | Owens C.,National Pediatric Oncology Unit | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Genetics | Year: 2014

Nomenclature for the three recognized forms of rhabdoid tumor reflect their anatomic localization and include malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), extrarenal extracranial rhabdoid tumor (EERT), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) involving the central nervous system. Astrikingly simple karyotype belies the fact that rhabdoid tumors are among the most lethal human cancers, and now early strides are beginning to elucidate their molecular pathogenesis. Rhabdoid tumors are largely confined to the pediatric population, where they occur preferentially during infancy. Given the rarity of this tumor, international consensus on best treatment has only recently been achieved in conjunction with the establishment of the European Rhabdoid Tumor Registry. Between 1986 and 2013, 25 pediatric patients were diagnosed with rhabdoid tumor in the Republic of Ireland. Of these patients, 13 presented with ATRT, eight had MRTK, and four had EERT. The mean age at diagnosis was 38.8 months, with an equal sex incidence. Because of the lack of a standardized treatment strategy for rhabdoid tumors, these patients have been treated largely according to anatomic site, based on sarcoma, renal, or brain tumor protocols contemporary to their diagnoses. Of the patients, 84% received chemotherapy, 80% underwent surgery, and 44% had radiation therapy. The outcome overall was poor, independent of anatomic location. The overall survival rate was 24%, and mean time to death was just under 9 months. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Kenny C.,National Childrens Research Center | Bausenwein S.,University of Wurzburg | Lazaro A.,National Childrens Research Center | Furtwangler R.,University of Wurzburg | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2016

Internal tandem duplication within the BCOR gene sequence that encodes the PUFD domain, important in the formation of the non-canonical or variant polycomb repressor complex 1 (v-PRC1), was very recently described in 100% of 20 clear cell sarcomas of kidney (CCSKs). None of those 20 cases bore the YWHAE-NUTM2 transcript, previously described by us in CCSK, and which constitutes the only other recurrent genetic aberration observed in CCSK, prompting consideration that these mutations might be mutually exclusive in CCSK. We analysed a cohort of 159 CCSKs and can now not only confirm that there is indeed mutual exclusivity of these BCOR and YWHAE mutations, but also show that a substantial proportion (in this series 11.8%) of CCSKs bear neither mutation when tested by these assays, raising the possibility of distinct aetiologies for subsets of CCSK. Clinical differences observed between the subsets support this notion. As CCSK may show poor chemo-responsiveness, and current treatment protocols mandate the use of doxorubicin with its associated side-effects, advances in understanding the disease biology with a view to more targeted and personalized treatment is a pressing need. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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