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Dehn J.,National Marrow Donor Program | Buck K.,National Marrow Donor Program | Maiers M.,National Marrow Donor Program | Confer D.,National Marrow Donor Program | And 5 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2015

The National Marrow Donor Program's Be The Match Registry® facilitates the worldwide utilization of unrelated donor (URD) grafts for patients in need of a hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this study, we estimate the URD match rate for patients of White (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American/Black (AFA) race and ethnic groups. We chose 1344 URD at random as "pseudo-patients" (PP) to estimate the likelihood of finding an 8/8 or 10/10 high-resolution HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 (and -DQB1) matched URD. Searches were conducted in the Be The Match Registry database for each PP at 2 time points: 2009 and 2012. URD who were a potential match for a PP by low/intermediate resolution were HLA typed by sequence-based typing to resolve the matching status. The 8/8 match rate for WH PP improved from 68% in 2009 to 72% in 2012. Corresponding match rates were 41% to 44% for HIS, 44% to 46% for API, and 27% to 30% for AFA, for 2009 and 2012, respectively. The 2012 10/10 match rates were 67% for WH, 38% for HIS, 41% for API, and 23% for AFA. These results provide baseline 8/8 and 10/10 match rate estimates by race for patients seeking an URD. © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Source

Buck K.,Minneapolis | Wadsworth K.,Minneapolis | Setterholm M.,Minneapolis | Maiers M.,Minneapolis | And 5 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2016

Estimation of the National Marrow Donor Program's Be The Match Registry 8/8 (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) high-resolution (HR) unrelated donor (URD) match rate was determined in a prior study for each of the 4 most frequent patient race/ethnic groups in the United States: white (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American (AFA). For patients without an 8/8 HLA-matched URD, a 7/8 match, with a single allele or antigen mismatch, is often accepted by many transplant centers. A follow-up study was designed to determine the 7/8 or better match rate among the 4 major race/ethnic groups, using the same study cohort. Of previously HR tested URDs in the Be The Match Registry, 1344 were randomly selected and treated as pseudo-patients where HR testing was performed to identify a 7/8-matched URD; 98% of WH and over 80% of non-WH race/ethnic groups (HIS, API, and AFA) had at least a 7/8 match identified. In most cases after first testing to identify an 8/8-matched URD, a 7/8-matched URD was identified after typing just 1 URD. Extending criteria to identify a 9/10 match (included HLA-DQB1) showed the 9/10 absolute match rate decreased between 14% and 21% from the 7/8 match rate for the non-WH groups. This study provides a baseline 7/8 and 9/10 or better HLA match rate that can be further supplemented using the additional worldwide URD inventory. URD match rate information can equip centers in clinical planning and the education of patients seeking a life-saving therapy. © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Source

Hernandez-Frederick C.J.,German Bone Marrow Donor Center | Cereb N.,Histogenetics LLC | Giani A.S.,German Bone Marrow Donor Center | Ruppel J.,Delete Blood Cancer DKMS U.S. | And 5 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2014

We have characterized 372 novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles identified in newly registered stem cell donors, this includes 281 HLA-DRB1 alleles, 89 HLA-DQB1 alleles and 2 HLA-DPB1 alleles. Most novel alleles were single nucleotide variants when compared to their respective most homologous alleles. In 66.4% of all novel alleles non-synonymous nucleotide variations were identified, in 30.4% synonymous substitutions and in 3.2% nonsense mutations. Ninty-three (25.0%) novel alleles were found in several individuals; most often these were novel HLA-DRB1 alleles. Lastly, we underline the importance of recruiting ethnic minority donors in countries such as Germany and the United States, as novel alleles were frequently found among these groups. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Milius R.P.,National Marrow Donor ProgramMN | Heuer M.,National Marrow Donor ProgramMN | Valiga D.,National Marrow Donor ProgramMN | Doroschak K.J.,National Marrow Donor ProgramMN | And 9 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2015

We present an electronic format for exchanging data for HLA and KIR genotyping with extensions for next-generation sequencing (NGS). This format addresses NGS data exchange by refining the Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) to conform to the proposed Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING) reporting guidelines (miring.immunogenomics.org). Our refinements of HML include two major additions. First, NGS is supported by new XML structures to capture additional NGS data and metadata required to produce a genotyping result, including analysis-dependent (dynamic) and method-dependent (static) components. A full genotype, consensus sequence, and the surrounding metadata are included directly, while the raw sequence reads and platform documentation are externally referenced. Second, genotype ambiguity is fully represented by integrating Genotype List Strings, which use a hierarchical set of delimiters to represent allele and genotype ambiguity in a complete and accurate fashion. HML also continues to enable the transmission of legacy methods (e.g. site-specific oligonucleotide, sequence-specific priming, and Sequence Based Typing (SBT)), adding features such as allowing multiple group-specific sequencing primers, and fully leveraging techniques that combine multiple methods to obtain a single result, such as SBT integrated with NGS. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Isobe N.,University of California at San Francisco | Gourraud P.-A.,University of California at San Francisco | Harbo H.F.,University of Oslo | Caillier S.J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 15 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objectives: To assess the association of established multiple sclerosis (MS) risk variants in 3,254 African Americans (1,162 cases and 2,092 controls). Methods: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-A alleles were typed by molecular techniques. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was conducted for 76 MS-associated SNPs and 52 ancestry informative marker SNPs selected throughout the genome. Self-declared ancestry was refined by principal component analysis of the ancestry informative marker SNPs. An ancestry-adjusted multivariate model was applied to assess genetic associations. Results: The following major histocompatibility complex risk alleles were replicated: HLADRB1 15:01 (odds ratio [OR] 5 2.02 [95% confidence interval: 1.54-2.63], p 5 2.50e-07), HLA-DRB1 03:01 (OR 5 1.58 [1.29-1.94], p 5 1.11e-05), as well as HLA-DRB1 04:05 (OR 5 2.35 [1.26-4.37], p 5 0.007) and the African-specific risk allele of HLA-DRB1 15:03 (OR 5 1.26 [1.05-1.51], p 5 0.012). The protective association of HLA-A02:01 was confirmed (OR 5 0.72 [0.55-0.93], p 5 0.013). None of the HLA-DQB1 alleles were associated with MS. Using a significance threshold of p , 0.01, outside the major histocompatibility complex region, 8MS SNPs were also found to be associated with MS in African Americans. Conclusion: MS genetic risk in African Americans only partially overlaps with that of Europeans and could explain the difference of MS prevalence between populations. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology. Source

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