Histogenetics LLC

Ossining, NY, United States

Histogenetics LLC

Ossining, NY, United States
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Isobe N.,University of California at San Francisco | Gourraud P.-A.,University of California at San Francisco | Harbo H.F.,University of Oslo | Caillier S.J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 15 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objectives: To assess the association of established multiple sclerosis (MS) risk variants in 3,254 African Americans (1,162 cases and 2,092 controls). Methods: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-A alleles were typed by molecular techniques. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was conducted for 76 MS-associated SNPs and 52 ancestry informative marker SNPs selected throughout the genome. Self-declared ancestry was refined by principal component analysis of the ancestry informative marker SNPs. An ancestry-adjusted multivariate model was applied to assess genetic associations. Results: The following major histocompatibility complex risk alleles were replicated: HLADRB1 15:01 (odds ratio [OR] 5 2.02 [95% confidence interval: 1.54-2.63], p 5 2.50e-07), HLA-DRB1 03:01 (OR 5 1.58 [1.29-1.94], p 5 1.11e-05), as well as HLA-DRB1 04:05 (OR 5 2.35 [1.26-4.37], p 5 0.007) and the African-specific risk allele of HLA-DRB1 15:03 (OR 5 1.26 [1.05-1.51], p 5 0.012). The protective association of HLA-A02:01 was confirmed (OR 5 0.72 [0.55-0.93], p 5 0.013). None of the HLA-DQB1 alleles were associated with MS. Using a significance threshold of p , 0.01, outside the major histocompatibility complex region, 8MS SNPs were also found to be associated with MS in African Americans. Conclusion: MS genetic risk in African Americans only partially overlaps with that of Europeans and could explain the difference of MS prevalence between populations. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.


Dehn J.,National Marrow Donor Program | Buck K.,National Marrow Donor Program | Maiers M.,National Marrow Donor Program | Confer D.,National Marrow Donor Program | And 5 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2015

The National Marrow Donor Program's Be The Match Registry® facilitates the worldwide utilization of unrelated donor (URD) grafts for patients in need of a hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this study, we estimate the URD match rate for patients of White (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American/Black (AFA) race and ethnic groups. We chose 1344 URD at random as "pseudo-patients" (PP) to estimate the likelihood of finding an 8/8 or 10/10 high-resolution HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 (and -DQB1) matched URD. Searches were conducted in the Be The Match Registry database for each PP at 2 time points: 2009 and 2012. URD who were a potential match for a PP by low/intermediate resolution were HLA typed by sequence-based typing to resolve the matching status. The 8/8 match rate for WH PP improved from 68% in 2009 to 72% in 2012. Corresponding match rates were 41% to 44% for HIS, 44% to 46% for API, and 27% to 30% for AFA, for 2009 and 2012, respectively. The 2012 10/10 match rates were 67% for WH, 38% for HIS, 41% for API, and 23% for AFA. These results provide baseline 8/8 and 10/10 match rate estimates by race for patients seeking an URD. © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.


PubMed | HistoGenetics LLC, Jaeb Center for Health Research, German Bone Marrow Donor Center, Cw Bill Young Marrow Donor Recruitment And Research Program and National Marrow Donor Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2014

The National Marrow Donor Programs Be The Match Registry() facilitates the worldwide utilization of unrelated donor (URD) grafts for patients in need of a hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this study, we estimate the URD match rate for patients of White (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American/Black (AFA) race and ethnic groups. We chose 1344 URD at random as pseudo-patients (PP) to estimate the likelihood of finding an 8/8 or 10/10 high-resolution HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 (and -DQB1) matched URD. Searches were conducted in the Be The Match Registry database for each PP at 2 time points: 2009 and 2012. URD who were a potential match for a PP by low/intermediate resolution were HLA typed by sequence-based typing to resolve the matching status. The 8/8 match rate for WH PP improved from 68% in 2009 to 72% in 2012. Corresponding match rates were 41% to 44% for HIS, 44% to 46% for API, and 27% to 30% for AFA, for 2009 and 2012, respectively. The 2012 10/10 match rates were 67% for WH, 38% for HIS, 41% for API, and 23% for AFA. These results provide baseline 8/8 and 10/10 match rate estimates by race for patients seeking an URD.


Gourraud P.-A.,University of California at San Francisco | Khankhanian P.,University of California at San Francisco | Cereb N.,Histogenetics Inc. | Yang S.Y.,Histogenetics Inc. | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The 1000 Genomes Project aims to provide a deep characterization of human genome sequence variation by sequencing at a level that should allow the genome-wide detection of most variants with frequencies as low as 1%. However, in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), only the top 10 most frequent haplotypes are in the 1% frequency range whereas thousands of haplotypes are present at lower frequencies. Given the limitation of both the coverage and the read length of the sequences generated by the 1000 Genomes Project, the highly variable positions that define HLA alleles may be difficult to identify. We used classical Sanger sequencing techniques to type the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes in the available 1000 Genomes samples and combined the results with the 103,310 variants in the MHC region genotyped by the 1000 Genomes Project. Using pairwise identity-by-descent distances between individuals and principal component analysis, we established the relationship between ancestry and genetic diversity in the MHC region. As expected, both the MHC variants and the HLA phenotype can identify the major ancestry lineage, informed mainly by the most frequent HLA haplotypes. To some extent, regions of the genome with similar genetic or similar recombination rate have similar properties. An MHC-centric analysis underlines departures between the ancestral background of the MHC and the genome-wide picture. Our analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in these samples suggests that overestimation of pairwise LD occurs due to a limited sampling of the MHC diversity. This collection of HLA-specific MHC variants, available on the dbMHC portal, is a valuable resource for future analyses of the role of MHC in population and disease studies. © 2014 Gourraud et al.


PubMed | Delete Blood Cancer DKMS U.S., DKMS Polska, German Bone Marrow Donor Center and HistoGenetics Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: HLA | Year: 2016

We characterized 549 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles found in newly registered stem cell donors as a result of high-throughput HLA typing. New alleles include 101 HLA-A, 132 HLA-B, 105 HLA-C, 2 HLA-DRB1, 89 HLA-DQB1 and 120 HLA-DPB1 alleles. Mainly, new alleles comprised single nucleotide variations when compared with homologous sequences. We identified nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in 70.7% of all new alleles, synonymous variations in 26.4% and nonsense substitutions in 2.9% (null alleles). Some new alleles (55, 10.0%) were found multiple times, HLA-DPB1 alleles being the most frequent among these. Furthermore, as several new alleles were identified in individuals from ethnic minority groups, the relevance of recruiting donors belonging to such groups and the importance of ethnicity data collection in donor centers and registries is highlighted.


PubMed | University of Montréal, University of California at San Francisco, Histogenetics Inc., U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information and National Marrow Donor Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The 1000 Genomes Project aims to provide a deep characterization of human genome sequence variation by sequencing at a level that should allow the genome-wide detection of most variants with frequencies as low as 1%. However, in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), only the top 10 most frequent haplotypes are in the 1% frequency range whereas thousands of haplotypes are present at lower frequencies. Given the limitation of both the coverage and the read length of the sequences generated by the 1000 Genomes Project, the highly variable positions that define HLA alleles may be difficult to identify. We used classical Sanger sequencing techniques to type the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes in the available 1000 Genomes samples and combined the results with the 103,310 variants in the MHC region genotyped by the 1000 Genomes Project. Using pairwise identity-by-descent distances between individuals and principal component analysis, we established the relationship between ancestry and genetic diversity in the MHC region. As expected, both the MHC variants and the HLA phenotype can identify the major ancestry lineage, informed mainly by the most frequent HLA haplotypes. To some extent, regions of the genome with similar genetic or similar recombination rate have similar properties. An MHC-centric analysis underlines departures between the ancestral background of the MHC and the genome-wide picture. Our analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in these samples suggests that overestimation of pairwise LD occurs due to a limited sampling of the MHC diversity. This collection of HLA-specific MHC variants, available on the dbMHC portal, is a valuable resource for future analyses of the role of MHC in population and disease studies.


PubMed | HistoGenetics LLC, Childrens Hospital & Research Center Oakland, University of California at San Francisco and National Marrow Donor Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human immunology | Year: 2015

We present an electronic format for exchanging data for HLA and KIR genotyping with extensions for next-generation sequencing (NGS). This format addresses NGS data exchange by refining the Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) to conform to the proposed Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING) reporting guidelines (miring.immunogenomics.org). Our refinements of HML include two major additions. First, NGS is supported by new XML structures to capture additional NGS data and metadata required to produce a genotyping result, including analysis-dependent (dynamic) and method-dependent (static) components. A full genotype, consensus sequence, and the surrounding metadata are included directly, while the raw sequence reads and platform documentation are externally referenced. Second, genotype ambiguity is fully represented by integrating Genotype List Strings, which use a hierarchical set of delimiters to represent allele and genotype ambiguity in a complete and accurate fashion. HML also continues to enable the transmission of legacy methods (e.g. site-specific oligonucleotide, sequence-specific priming, and Sequence Based Typing (SBT)), adding features such as allowing multiple group-specific sequencing primers, and fully leveraging techniques that combine multiple methods to obtain a single result, such as SBT integrated with NGS.


Pyo C.-W.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Wang R.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Vu Q.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Cereb N.,Histogenetics LLC | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: The human KIR genes are arranged in at least six major gene-content haplotypes, all of which are combinations of four centromeric and two telomeric motifs. Several less frequent or minor haplotypes also exist, including insertions, deletions, and hybridization of KIR genes derived from the major haplotypes. These haplotype structures and their concomitant linkage disequilibrium among KIR genes suggest that more meaningful correlative data from studies of KIR genetics and complex disease may be achieved by measuring haplotypes of the KIR region in total.Results: Towards that end, we developed a KIR haplotyping method that reports unambiguous combinations of KIR gene-content haplotypes, including both phase and copy number for each KIR. A total of 37 different gene content haplotypes were detected from 4,512 individuals and new sequence data was derived from haplotypes where the detailed structure was not previously available.Conclusions: These new structures suggest a number of specific recombinant events during the course of KIR evolution, and add to an expanding diversity of potential new KIR haplotypes derived from gene duplication, deletion, and hybridization. © 2013 Pyo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Hernandez-Frederick C.J.,German Bone Marrow Donor Center | Giani A.S.,German Bone Marrow Donor Center | Cereb N.,HistoGenetics Inc. | Sauter J.,German Bone Marrow Donor Center | And 5 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2014

We describe 2127 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles found in registered stem cell donors. These alleles represent 28.9% of the currently known class I alleles. Comparing new allele sequences to homologous sequences, we found 68.1% nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, 28.9% silent mutations and 3.0% nonsense mutations. Many substitutions occurred at positions that have not been known to be polymorphic before. A large number of HLA alleles and nucleotide variations underline the extreme diversity of the HLA system. Strikingly, 156 new alleles were found not only multiple times, but also in carriers of various parentage, suggesting that some new alleles are not necessarily rare. Moreover, new alleles were found especially often in minority donors. This emphasizes the benefits of specifically recruiting such groups of individuals. © 2014 The Authors.


PubMed | HistoGenetics LLC, German Bone Marrow Donor Center, Cw Bill Young Marrow Donor Recruitment And Research Program and National Marrow Donor Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2016

Estimation of the National Marrow Donor Programs Be The Match Registry 8/8 (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) high-resolution (HR) unrelated donor (URD) match rate was determined in a prior study for each of the 4most frequent patient race/ethnic groups in the United States: white (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American (AFA). For patients without an 8/8 HLA-matched URD, a 7/8 match, with a single allele or antigen mismatch, is often accepted by many transplant centers. A follow-up study was designed to determine the 7/8 or better match rate among the 4 major race/ethnic groups, using the same study cohort. Of previously HR tested URDs in the Be The Match Registry, 1344 were randomly selected and treated as pseudo-patients where HR testing was performed to identify a 7/8-matched URD; 98% of WH and over 80% of non-WH race/ethnic groups (HIS, API, and AFA) had at least a 7/8 match identified. In most cases after first testing to identify an 8/8-matched URD, a 7/8-matched URD was identified after typing just 1 URD. Extending criteria to identify a 9/10 match (included HLA-DQB1) showed the 9/10 absolute match rate decreased between 14% and 21% from the 7/8 match rate for the non-WH groups. This study provides a baseline 7/8 and 9/10 or better HLA match rate that can be further supplemented using the additional worldwide URD inventory. URD match rate information can equip centers in clinical planning and the education of patients seeking a life-saving therapy.

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