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Nāgpur, India

Longvah T.,National Institute of Nutrition | Toteja G.S.,Indian Council of Medical Research | Upadhyay A.,Hislop College
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100 g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100 g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The egg of A. guttatus is endophytic and is cylindrical with a pointed anterior and a rounded posterior end. The chorion is divided into 2 layers, a thin, outer exochorion and a tough, thick, inner endochorion. The exochorion is modified anteriorly into a collar which is sculptured with 18-20 tiers of rectangular hexagonal impressions. Profound morphological and structural modifications are found in the eggs incubated in paper mill effluent for 5 days. The eggs became distorted due to swelling and the posterior rounded end became angular. The membranous exochorion degraded and transformed into thin, plate-like flakes which are shed, exposing the endochorion. The non-laminated, uniformly thick endochorion is converted into a laminated structure of overlapping plates with uneven thickness. The collar became pitted with minute perforations and started to disintegrate and detach from the egg and the hexagonal impressions became obliterated. 100% mortality was found in paper mill effluent treated eggs for 5 days, whereas eggs kept in pond water only had 10-13% mortality.

A total of 611 exuviae were collected within a period of 45 days during April-May, 2004 from the walls of an open cement drain at Nagpur, India. The daily record of this collection revealed that 50% of the total emergence was completed by the 14thday and the sex ratio is considerably in favour of o♂ o♂(1.4:1). The ♀ ♀ emerge earlier (protogyny) and the ME50 for ♀ and o♂ was observed on the 10th and 18th day, respectively. Protogyny probably provides adequate time for the 9 to develop her ovaries. 194 exuviae (31.75%) were collected from the north wall, which was completely in shade, and 417 (68.25%) from the south wall, which receives sunlight throughout the day. On the north wall, 44.7% exuviae were collected at a height of 30-45 cm from the water level, while from the south wall, 57.2% exuviae were collected at a height up to 15 cm and 28.4% between 15-30 cm. The present findings indicate that sunlight and temperature not only determine the choice of direction of the emerging larva but also initiate an early commencement of Stage I of metamorphosis (shortening the time between the surfacing of the larva and splitting its thoracic cuticle), which results in the shorter distance climbed by the larvae on the south wall for the final moult.

Andrew R.J.,Hislop College | Foerster S.,Barnard College
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2015

A highly specialized form of egg deposition occurs in the dragonfly Micrathyria dictynna, which attaches egg-masses onto the underside of leaves high above shallow streams in Central American rainforests. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the egg chorion of M. dictynna to reveal structural adaptations related to this unusual form of oviposition. We find that the egg chorion is generally divided into a thin, sticky exochorion and a tough, hard, smooth endochorion. The exochorion of eggs collected from the peripheral region of egg masses, however, shows a separation into outer and inner exochorionic layers. The space formed between these layers develops numerous pillars. In eggs collected from the area between the periphery and central region of an egg mass, the exochorion exhibits irregular interconnected patches of elevated areas containing very fine superficial linear reticulations. We propose that the exochorion of peripheral eggs is functionally modified to form a plastron that regulates respiration and restricts water loss of eggs in the inner layers of the egg mass. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Longvah T.,National Institute of Nutrition | Toteja G.S.,Indian Council of Medical Research | Bulliyya G.,Regional Medical Research Center | Raghuvanshi R.S.,Gb Pant University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Universal salt iodisation programme is recognised as an economical, convenient and effective means of preventing iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). However, information on the retention of iodine during cooking is scant. Therefore this study was undertaken to investigate the retention of iodine from iodised salt when added to the most commonly used Indian recipes. The Mean ± SD retention of iodine in 140 of the most common Indian recipes was 60 ± 21%. The frequency distribution showed low retention (<20%) of iodine in 5.7% of the recipes, moderate retention (20-40%) in 15.7% while very high retention (>80%) was observed in 20%. Significant correlation (r = -0.194, P < 0.05) was observed between iodine retention and the time of iodised salt addition to the recipe. The retention of iodine was observed to be a minimum in shallow frying with oil (52 ± 23%) and a maximum in pressure cooking (82.2 ± 6.2%). The data generated in this study would usefully augment the negligible information regarding iodine retention in recipes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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