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Tsurusaki Y.,Yokohama City University | Okamoto N.,Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health | Ohashi H.,Saitama Childrens Medical Center | Kosho T.,Shinshu University | And 27 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

By exome sequencing, we found de novo SMARCB1 mutations in two of five individuals with typical Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), a rare autosomal dominant anomaly syndrome. As SMARCB1 encodes a subunit of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermenting (SWI/SNF) complex, we screened 15 other genes encoding subunits of this complex in 23 individuals with CSS. Twenty affected individuals (87%) each had a germline mutation in one of six SWI/SNF subunit genes, including SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, SMARCE1, ARID1A and ARID1B. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kosho T.,Shinshu University | Okamoto N.,Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health | Ohashi H.,Saitama Childrens Medical Center | Tsurusaki Y.,Yokohama City University | And 25 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Mutations in the components of the SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF)-like chromatin remodeling complex have recently been reported to cause Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS), and ARID1B-related intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. We detail here the genotype-phenotype correlations for 85 previously published and one additional patient with mutations in the SWI/SNF complex: four with SMARCB1 mutations, seven with SMARCA4 mutations, 37 with SMARCA2 mutations, one with an SMARCE1 mutation, three with ARID1A mutations, and 33 with ARID1B mutations. The mutations were associated with syndromic ID and speech impairment (severe/profound in SMARCB1, SMARCE1, and ARID1A mutations; variable in SMARCA4, SMARCA2, and ARID1B mutations), which was frequently accompanied by agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. SMARCB1 mutations caused "classical" CSS with typical facial "coarseness" and significant digital/nail hypoplasia. SMARCA4 mutations caused CSS without typical facial coarseness and with significant digital/nail hypoplasia. SMARCA2 mutations caused NCBRS, typically with short stature, sparse hair, a thin vermillion of the upper lip, an everted lower lip and prominent finger joints. A SMARCE1 mutation caused CSS without typical facial coarseness and with significant digital/nail hypoplasia. ARID1A mutations caused the most severe CSS with severe physical complications. ARID1B mutations caused CSS without typical facial coarseness and with mild digital/nail hypoplasia, or caused syndromic ID. Because of the common underlying mechanism and overlapping clinical features, we propose that these conditions be referred to collectively as "SWI/SNF-related ID syndromes". © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Komoike Y.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | Fujii K.,Chiba University | Nishimura A.,Yokohama City University | Hiraki Y.,Hiroshima Municipal Center for Child Health and Development | And 14 more authors.
Genesis | Year: 2010

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neuro-developmental disorder presenting with an elfin-like face, supravalvular aortic stenosis, a specific cognitive-behavioral profile, and infantile hypercalcemia. We encountered two WBS patients presenting with infantile spasms, which is extremely rare in WBS. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed atypical 5.7-Mb and 4.1-Mb deletions at 7q11.23 in the two patients, including the WBS critical region and expanding into the proximal side and the telomeric side, respectively. On the proximal side, AUTS2 and CALN1 may contribute to the phenotype. On the telomeric side, there are two candidate genes HIP1 and YWHAG. Because detailed information of them was unavailable, we investigated their functions using gene knockdowns of zebrafish. When zebrafish ywhagl was knocked down, reduced brain size and increased diameter of the heart tube were observed, indicating that the infantile spasms and cardiomegaly seen in the patient with the telomeric deletion may be derived from haploinsufficiency of YWHAG. genesis 48: 233-243, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Yamada Y.,Institute for Developmental Research | Nomura N.,Institute for Developmental Research | Yamada K.,Institute for Developmental Research | Matsuo M.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | And 28 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by moderate or severe intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, microcephaly, epilepsy, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, congenital heart defects, Hirschsprung disease, and urogenital/renal anomalies. It is caused by de novo heterozygous loss of function mutations including nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, and deletions in ZEB2 at 2q22. ZEB2 encodes the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 protein consisting of 1,214 amino acids. Herein, we report 13 nonsense and 27 frameshift mutations from 40 newly identified MWS patients in Japan. Although the clinical findings of all the Japanese MWS patients with nonsense and frameshift mutations were quite similar to the previous review reports of MWS caused by nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations and deletions of ZEB2, the frequencies of microcephaly, Hirschsprung disease, and urogenital/renal anomalies were small. Patients harbored mutations spanning the region between the amino acids 55 and 1,204 in wild-type ZEB2. There was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation among the patients. A transfection study demonstrated that the cellular level of the longest form of the mutant ZEB2 protein harboring the p.D1204Rfs*29 mutation was remarkably low. The results showed that the 3'-end frameshift mutation of ZEB2 causes MWS due to ZEB2 instability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Fukai R.,Yokohama City University | Hiraki Y.,Hiroshima Municipal Center for Child Health and Development | Nishimura G.,Tokyo Metropolitan Childrens Medical Center | Nakashima M.,Yokohama City University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

Monosomy 21 is a very rare chromosomal abnormality. At least 45 patients with partial deletion involving 21q11 have been reported. Here, we report a Japanese boy who presented with pre- and postnatal growth delays, psychomotor developmental delay, microcephaly, and iris coloboma. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a de novo 1.4-Mb deletion at 21q22.11 containing 19 protein-coding RefSeq genes. We compared the clinical phenotypes between the present patient and 16 previously reported patients with a deleted region associated with postnatal growth delay and psychomotor developmental delay. Interestingly, ITSN1 was the only gene deleted or disrupted in all cases; this gene is known to be associated with intellectual disability. Microcephaly and brain structural abnormalities including polymicrogyria and agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum may also result from haploinsufficiency of ITSN1, highlighting its clinical significance for the neurological features of patients with monosomy 21. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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