Pellicer J.,University of Barcelona |
Garnatje T.,Institute Botanic Of Barcelona Csic Icub |
Hidalgo O.,Ohio University |
Tagashira N.,Hiroshima Jogakuin University |
And 2 more authors.
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2010
Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA was carried out in two species of the genus Artemisia, belonging to the subgenera Artemisia (A. medioxima) and Absinthium (A. lagocephala), each one showing both low and high ploidy levels (2x, 4x and 16x, and 2x and 6x, respectively). Both species have a base chromosome number of x=9. Linkage of both rDNA genes has been observed confirming previous results. Diploid A. lagocephala (2n=18) shows three rDNA loci, and the hexaploid six. Also in A. medioxima, the number of rDNA loci does not increase in the proportion given by the ploidy level, and a relative loss is found. In this species, the diploid population shows two rDNA loci, the tetraploid four, and the hexaidecaploid has around 20. The results evidence a relative loss of rDNA loci and heterochromatin, a phenomenon that is more pronounced at higher ploidy levels. Nevertheless, the DAPI banding pattern of A. lagocephala does not follow this trend, as it shows a spectacular increase of heterochromatic bands at the hexaploid level. These results are discussed in the light of possible chromosome restructuring and gene silencing mechanisms that take place during polyploidy, and more especially allopolyploid formation. © 2010 Società Botanica Italiana. Source
Wisniewska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Grabowska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Pietraszewska-Bogiel A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Pietraszewska-Bogiel A.,University of Amsterdam |
And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Somatic embryogenesis is a method of plant regeneration, but it can also be used as a model to study plant development. A normalized library of cDNA fragments representing genes up-regulated after the induction of somatic embryogenesis in cucumber suspension cultures was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. Candidate cDNA fragments (119) were classified according to their similarity to genes encoding known proteins and the presence of potential functional domains. Of the translation products with homology to known proteins, about 23% were possibly involved in metabolism, 13% represented proteins with a probable role in cellular communication and signal transduction, about 12% were likely to participate in protein synthesis, while around 10% were potential transcription factors. The genes corresponding to four of the cDNAs were subsequently analyzed in more detail: CsSEF2, CsSEM1 and CsSESTK1 encoding putative transcription factors or co-activators, and CsSECAD1 encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Full-length cDNAs were isolated and analyzed. RT-PCR confirmed the up-regulation of these genes after the induction of somatic embryogenesis and showed the presence of their transcripts in other tissues. The in situ localization of transcripts of the CsSEF2 and CsSEM1 genes demonstrated that signalling in somatic embryo tissues involving these factors is concentrated in the cotyledon primordia and roots. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source
Woycicki R.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Witkowicz J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Gawronski P.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Dabrowska J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar - Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in divergent conditions. © 2011 Wóycicki et al. Source
Sato Y.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition |
Nakanishi T.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition |
Chiba T.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition |
Yokotani K.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition |
And 4 more authors.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013
We investigated the characteristics of dietary supplements and their use by 1,076 Japanese pregnant women, the majority of whom were in mid- to late pregnancy. The subjects completed a self-reported survey on their sociodemographic characteristics, supplement use, and attitudes towards diet. The overall prevalence of supplement use did not change before and after pregnancy (75%); however, daily use increased by approximately twofold with pregnancy (20.2% versus 37.2%). After the onset of pregnancy, supplements containing folic acid were taken for fetal health. Daily users were more likely to be older, have a greater awareness of the risk of neural tube defects (NTD), view supplement use as acceptable, have less diet anxiety, and have more advisers regarding diet. Respondents used supplements containing folic acid alone or with other ingredients. Folic acid intake is recommended to reduce the risk of NTD. However, supplement use began after pregnancy recognition, suggesting a lack of knowledge on the appropriate timing of folic acid use. Information about supplements was obtained mostly from newspapers, magazines, flyers, and stores. These results indicate that more accurate information regarding the optimal timing of folic acid intake and the safety of dietary supplements must be disseminated. Source
Yagi K.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Siedlecka E.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Pawelkowicz M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Wojcieszek M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
And 5 more authors.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2014
Cucumis metuliferus (2n = 24) is a cultivated species of the Cucumis genus which is a potential genetic resource for Cucumis crops. Although some cytogenetic research has been reported, there is no study of karyotyping in this species. Here, we used 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and chromomycin A3 staining to identify 12 pairs of chromosomes in early-metaphase cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the chromosomal distribution patterns of the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, telomeres, and 3 different satellite repeats. The 2 major signals of the 45S rDNA were located on the satellite of chromosome 11, and the 2 signals of the 5S rDNA and 2 minor signals of the 45S rDNA were located on chromosome 12. The telomere probes hybridized to the ends of all chromosomes. The 3 satellite DNAs were localized at the ends of chromosomes 1, 2, 4-10, and at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3. In summary, we reported the identification of all chromosomes of C. metuliferus. We also depicted the location of 5S and 45S rDNA, the telomere motif sequence, CmetSat1, CmetSatT2, and CmetmSat1 in an ideogram. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source