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Okada M.,Hiroshima Bunka Gakuen Two Year College | Kakehashi M.,Hiroshima University
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2014

Previous studies of autonomic nervous system responses before and after eating when controlling patient conditions and room temperature have provided inconsistent results. We hypothesized that several physiological parameters reflecting autonomic activity are affected by outdoor temperature before and after a meal. We measured the following physiological variables before and after a fixed meal in 53 healthy Japanese women: skin temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary amylase, blood glucose, heart rate, and heart rate variability. We assessed satiety before and after lunch using a visual analog scale (100 mm). We recorded outdoor temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. Skin temperature rose significantly 1 h after eating (greater in cold weather) (P = 0.008). Cold weather markedly influenced changes in diastolic blood pressure before (P = 0.017) and after lunch (P = 0.013). Fasting salivary amylase activity increased significantly in cold weather but fell significantly after lunch (significantly greater in cold weather) (P = 0.007). Salivary amylase was significantly associated with cold weather, low atmospheric pressure, and low relative humidity 30 min after lunch (P < 0.05). Cold weather significantly influenced heart rate variability (P = 0.001). The decreased low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, increased Δ LF/HF ratio, and increased Δ salivary amylase activity imply that cold outdoor temperature is associated with dominant parasympathetic activity after lunch. Our results clarify the relationship between environmental factors, food intake, and autonomic system and physiological variables, which helps our understanding of homeostasis and metabolism. © 2014 The Author(s). Source


Okada M.,Hiroshima Bunka Gakuen Two Year College | Kakehashi M.,Hiroshima University
SpringerPlus | Year: 2014

Purpose: The influences of body weight and air temperature on the autonomic response to food intake have not been clarified. We measured heart rate variability before and after lunch, as well as the effects of outdoor temperature and increased body mass index (BMI), in healthy young Japanese women. Methods: We studied 55 healthy young female university students. Heart rate variability was measured before lunch, immediately after lunch, 30 min after lunch, and 1 h after lunch to determine any correlations between heart rate variability, outdoor temperature, and BMI. In addition, multiple regression analysis was performed to elucidate the relationship between heart rate variability and outdoor temperature before and after lunch. A simple slope test was conducted to show the relationship between the low-to-high frequency ratio (1 h after lunch) and outdoor temperature. Results: Subjects were divided into a low BMI group (range: 16.6-20.3) and a high BMI group (range: 20.4-32.9). The very low frequency component of heart rate variability, an index of thermoregulatory vasomotor control exerted by the sympathetic nervous system, was significantly diminished after lunch in the high BMI group (P < 0.01). A significant decrease in the low-to-high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, which represents the balance between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, was evident in the low BMI group after lunch, indicating parasympathetic system dominance (P = 0.001). In addition, a significant association was found between the LF/HF ratio and outdoor temperature after lunch with a lower BMI (P = 0.002), but this association disappeared with higher BMIs. Conclusion: Autonomic responses to eating showed clear differences according to BMI, indicating that the sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system may change with increases in BMI. © 2014 Okada and Kakehashi. Source


Murata M.,Hiroshima Bunka Gakuen Two Year College | Sugiyama S.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Ueda A.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima | Ishinaga M.,Prefectural University of Hiroshima
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2010

The contents of nitrate and nitrite in menus containing more than 350 g of vegetables per day were investigated. The amounts of vegetables in menu A developed by female students and menu B taken from a recipe book were 350 ±2 g and 457 ±77 g, respectively. The average content of the nitrate was 321.0± 139.3 mg (104.2-636.9 mg) in menu A, and 245.7±90.7 mg (140.1-507.3 mg) in menu B. Sixteen and thirteen samples exceeded the ADI in menus A and B, respectively. This may be because menu A contained more raw vegetables than menu B (menu A; 120 ±58 g, menu B; 72 ±71 g). The contents of nitrite in menu A and B were 1.2±0.3 mg (0.7-1.8 mg) and 2.8±0.9 mg (1.3-4.6 mg), respectively, and 6 samples in menu B exceeded the ADI. Intake of 35Og of vegetables or more in a day may reguire careful consideration of selection, frequency of use and cooking method, especially for vegetables with high nitrate content. A questionnaire to female students showed that 80% or more of students recognized that vegetables containing high contents of nitrate, such as spinach and komatsuna, should be boiled before eating them. Source


Okada M.,Hiroshima Bunka Gakuen Two Year College | Kakehashi M.,Hiroshima Bunka Gakuen Two Year College
International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2014

Previous studies of autonomic nervous system responses before and after eating when controlling patient conditions and room temperature have provided inconsistent results. We hypothesized that several physiological parameters reflecting autonomic activity are affected by outdoor temperature before and after a meal. We measured the following physiological variables before and after a fixed meal in 53 healthy Japanese women: skin temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary amylase, blood glucose, heart rate, and heart rate variability. We assessed satiety before and after lunch using a visual analog scale (100 mm). We recorded outdoor temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. Skin temperature rose significantly 1 h after eating (greater in cold weather) (P = 0.008). Cold weather markedly influenced changes in diastolic blood pressure before (P = 0.017) and after lunch (P = 0.013). Fasting salivary amylase activity increased significantly in cold weather but fell significantly after lunch (significantly greater in cold weather) (P = 0.007). Salivary amylase was significantly associated with cold weather, low atmospheric pressure, and low relative humidity 30 min after lunch (P < 0.05). Cold weather significantly influenced heart rate variability (P = 0.001). The decreased low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, increased Δ LF/HF ratio, and increased Δ salivary amylase activity imply that cold outdoor temperature is associated with dominant parasympathetic activity after lunch. Our results clarify the relationship between environmental factors, food intake, and autonomic system and physiological variables, which helps our understanding of homeostasis and metabolism. Source

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