Peng T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Peng T.,Huazhong Agricultural University |
Saito T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Saito T.,University of Tsukuba |
And 7 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2013
Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify candidate genes involved in red coloration in apple peel with the ultraviolet (UV)-B-treated 'Mutsu'. After reverse Northern blotting verification, nearly 80 clones were successfully sequenced. Large portions of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are well characterized anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes, such as chalcone synthase (11A5), flavonol synthase (12F3), anthocyanidin synthase (11H5) and UDP-glycosyl transferase (14A12) whose presence proved the success of SSH. Eight ESTs were selected for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and their expressions were all elevated in 'Induction', further confirming the reliability of the SSH library. One EST, 11F4 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1: COP1) with putative function in light signal relay was further analyzed in 'Mutsu' and 'Tsugaru', along with MdHY5 (ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5: the downstream target of COP1), MdMYB22 (a possible flavonol-specific activator under the regulation of HY5, belonging to the SG7/PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES family) and MdMYBA. Results showed that MdCOP1, MdHY5, MdMYB22 and MdMYBA were all UV-B inducible genes and anthocyanin accumulation occurred after their increased expressions. Moreover, their expressions and anthocyanin content were enhanced under UV-B plus 17°C treatment. The presence of G box, a known consensus binding site of HY5, in the MdMYBA promoter region implicated that it could be regulated by MdHY5, which was verified by the result of the yeast one-hybrid analysis. Our data suggested that UV-B irradiation would induce the utmost upstream light signaling factor, MdCOP1, which activates MdHY5 signaling by binding to the promoter regions of MdMYBs, and finally leads to the red coloration of apple peels. © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.
Bai S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Saito T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Honda C.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Hatsuyama Y.,Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2014
Main conclusion: Our studies showed that an apple B-box protein, MdCOL11, the homolog of AtBBX22, is involved in UV-B- and temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple peel.Anthocyanin is responsible for the red pigmentation in apple peel and a R2R3 MYB gene, MdMYBA/1/10, a homolog of MdMYBA, controls its accumulation. Arabidopsis PAP1 is under the control of a series of upstream factors involved in light signal transduction and photomorphogenesis, such as ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and B-box family (BBX) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized the homolog of Arabidopsis BBX22 in apple, designated as MdCOL11. Overexpression of MdCOL11 in Arabidopsis enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. In apples, MdCOL11 was differentially expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in petals and the lowest expression in the xylem. Transcripts of MdCOL11 noticeably accumulated at the ripening stage, concomitant with increases in the expressions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. In an in vitro treatment experiment, MdCOL11 was upregulated in an ultra-violet (UV)-B- and temperature-dependent manner, together with the inductions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes and anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase assay indicated that (1) MdCOL11 regulated the expression of MdMYBA and (2) MdCOL11 was a target of MdHY5. Taken together, our results suggest that MdCOL11 is involved in MdHY5-mediated signal transduction and regulates anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel, which sheds new light on anthocyanin accumulation in apples. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Bai S.,Hirosaki University |
Bai S.,Iwate University |
Wang A.,Hirosaki University |
Wang A.,Iwate University |
And 8 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2012
Expression of MdACS3a, one of the ripening-related ACC synthase genes, plays a pivotal role in initiating the burst of ethylene production by MdACS1 in apple fruit. Although previous studies have demonstrated the presence of MdACS3a-null alleles through deficiency of transcription activity or loss of enzyme activity due to amino acid substitution, which may affect the storage properties of certain fruit cultivars, an overall picture of these null alleles in cultivars is still lacking. The present study investigated the distribution of null allelic genes in 103 cultivars and 172 breeding selections by using a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker linked to them. The results indicated that both allelic genes were widely distributed throughout the examined cultivars and selections, some occurring as the null genotype, either homozygously or heterozygously, with each null allele. The implications of MdACS3a distribution results and the influence of its null allelotypes in fruit characters are discussed.
Igarashi M.,Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute |
Hatsuyama Y.,Apple Inc |
Harada T.,Hirosaki University |
Fukasawa-Akada T.,Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute
Breeding Science | Year: 2016
Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. © 2016, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.
Kotoda N.,Apple Inc |
Kotoda N.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science |
Hayashi H.,Apple Inc |
Suzuki M.,Apple Inc |
And 14 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2010
The two FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), MdFT1 and MdFT2, have been isolated and characterized. MdFT1 and MdFT2 were mapped, respectively, on distinct linkage groups (LGs) with partial homoeology, LG 12 and LG 4. The expression pattern of MdFT1 and MdFT2 differed in that MdFT1 was expressed mainly in apical buds of fruit-bearing shoots in the adult phase, with little expression in the juvenile tissues, whereas MdFT2 was expressed mainly in reproductive organs, including flower buds and young fruit. On the other hand, both genes had the potential to induce early flowering since transgenic Arabidopsis, which ectopically expressed MdFT1 or MdFT2, flowered earlier than wild-type plants. Furthermore, overexpression of MdFT1 conferred precocious flowering in apple, with altered expression of other endogenous genes, such as MdMADS12. These results suggest that MdFT1 could function to promote flowering by altering the expression of those genes and that, at least, other genes may play an important role as well in the regulation of flowering in apple. The long juvenile period of fruit trees prevents early cropping and efficient breeding. Our findings will be useful information to unveil the molecular mechanism of flowering and to develop methods to shorten the juvenile period in various fruit trees, including apple. © 2010 The Author.
PubMed | Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute, Apple Inc and Hirosaki University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2016
Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding.
Kizuka Y.,RIKEN |
Funayama S.,Osaka University |
Shogomori H.,Osaka University |
Shogomori H.,Seikagaku Corporation |
And 14 more authors.
Cell Chemical Biology | Year: 2016
Fucose, a terminal sugar in glycoconjugates, critically regulates various physiological and pathological phenomena, including cancer development and inflammation. However, there are currently no probes for efficient labeling and detection of this sugar. We chemically synthesized a novel series of alkynyl-fucose analogs as probe candidates and found that 7-alkynyl-fucose gave the highest labeling efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Among the fucose analogs, 7-alkynyl-fucose was the best substrate against all five fucosyltransferases examined. We confirmed its conversion to the corresponding guanosine diphosphate derivative in cells and found that cellular glycoproteins were labeled much more efficiently with 7-alkynyl-fucose than with an existing probe. 7-Alkynyl-fucose was detected in the N-glycan core by mass spectrometry, and 7-alkynyl-fucose-modified proteins mostly disappeared in core-fucose-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that this analog mainly labeled core fucose in these cells. These results indicate that 7-alkynyl-fucose is a highly sensitive and powerful tool for basic glycobiology research and clinical application for biomarker discovery. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Takahashi T.,Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute |
Takahashi T.,Hirosaki University |
Ichita J.,Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute |
Kato Y.,Hirosaki University
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2011
Apple pomace has been utilized as livestock feed and as a soil conditioner ; however, efficient utilization of apple pomace has been sought for a long time. In this study, we investigated the production of brewed vinegar from apple pomace and its physiological function. We prepared a saccharified solution from apple pomace by cellulase and pectinase treatment. The solution contained 4.4 times more oligosaccharides and 2.5 times more polyphenols than the untreated sample. Moreover, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the vinegars produced from the saccharified sample were higher than the vinegars produced without enzymatic saccharification. The results of a blind sensory evaluation of these vinegars indicated that the vinegar produced from apple pomace and commercial apple vinegar were equally liked. As expected, an increase in the functional composition of the vinegar produced from apple pomace was observed. In addition, the vinegar had good flavor and taste.
Hashiba K.,Okayama University |
Nio-Kobayashi J.,Hokkaido University |
Sano M.,Okayama University |
Sano M.,Hirosaki Industrial Research Institute |
And 6 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2016
The corpus luteum (CL) is essential for establishing pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur during the estrous cycle, luteolysis is induced by prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secreted from the uterus. Galectin-1, a beta-galactose-binding protein, is expressed in the functional CL of cows and increases the viability of bovine luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) by modifying the functions of membrane glycoproteins. The binding of galectin-1 to glycoproteins is blocked by alpha2,6-sialylation of the terminal galactose residues of glycoconjugates, which is catalyzed by a sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I). However, the physiological role of alpha2,6-sialic acid in bovine CL is unclear. The level of alpha2,6-sialylation of the bovine CL was higher during the regressed-luteal stage than in other luteal stages. Lectin histochemistry revealed that alpha2,6-sialylated glycoconjugates were localized to luteal endothelial cells throughout the estrous cycle. In addition, alpha2,6-sialylated glycoconjugates concentrated to the membrane of LSCs during the regressed-luteal stage. PGF2alpha treatment for 72 h enhanced the expression of ST6Gal-I mRNA and the level of alpha2,6-sialylated glycoproteins in mid-LSCs. The level of alpha2,6-sialylated glycoproteins of late-stage LSCs (Days 15-17 after ovulation) was higher than that of mid-stage LSCs (Days 8-12 after ovulation), and galectin-1 increased the viability of mid-LSCs but not that of late-stage LSCs. Furthermore, galectin-1 increased the viability of late-LSCs when alpha2,6-sialic acid residues were removed by neuraminidase. The overall findings suggest that alpha2,6-sialylation stimulated by PGF2alpha contributes to luteolysis by inhibiting the luteotropic effects of galectin-1 in bovine CL. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.