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Hasegawa M.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Hada J.,Hirakata General Hospital for Developmental Disorders | Fujiwara M.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Honda K.,Hyogo College of Medicine
Neurological Research | Year: 2014

In this study, we examined whether tooth pulp stimulation (TPS) affects the stress responses in anesthetized rats. As for stress response indices, we monitored changes in the concentrations of plasma catecholamines (CAs) (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine), corticosterone (CS), and glucose (Glu). We observed that repeated TPS attenuated plasma adrenaline, dopamine, CS, and Glu levels compared with those of sham-TPS. After administering naloxone, an opioid antagonist, repeated TPS reversed the decreases in plasma CAs, CS, and Glu. These findings showed that the effects of repeated TPS may be mediated by endogenous opioid administration. Our findings suggest that repeated TPS can induce stress-analgesia and that an endogenous descending pain modulation system exists. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014. Source

Yamamoto H.,Institute for Advanced Medical science | Okuzaki D.,Chip Development Center for Infectious Diseases | Yamanishi K.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Xu Y.,Institute for Advanced Medical science | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) are frequently used as model rats not only in studies of essential hypertension and stroke, but also in studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) are normally used as controls in these studies. In this study, using these rats, we aimed to identify the genes causing hypertension and stroke, as well as the genes involved in ADHD. Since adrenal gland products can directly influence cardiovascular, endocrine and sympathetic nervous system functions, gene expression profiles in the adrenal glands of the 3 rat strains were examined using genome-wide microarray technology when the rats were 3 and 6 weeks of age, a period in which the rats are considered to be in a pre-hypertensive state. Gene expression profiles were compared between SHR and WKY and between SHRSP and SHR. A total of 353 genes showing more than a 4-fold increase or less than a 4-fold decrease in expression were isolated and candidate genes were selected as significantly enriched genes. SHR-specific genes isolated when the rats were 3 weeks of age contained 12 enriched genes related to transcriptional regulatory activity and those isolated when the rats were 6 weeks of age contained 6 enriched genes related to the regulation of blood pressure. SHRSP-specific genes isolated when the rats were 3 weeks of age contained 4 enriched genes related to the regulation of blood pressure and those isolated when the rats were 6 weeks of age contained 4 enriched genes related to the response to steroid hormone stimulus. Ingenuity pathway analysis of enriched SHR-specific genes revealed that 2 transcriptional regulators, cAMP responsive element modulator (Crem) and Fos-like antigen 1 (Fosl1), interact with blood pressure-regulating genes, such as neurotensin (Nts), apelin (Apln) and epoxide hydrolase 2, cytoplasmic (Ephx2). Similar analyses of SHRSP-specific genes revealed that angiotensinogen (Agt), one of the blood pressure-regulating genes, plays pivotal roles among SHRSP-specific genes. Moreover, genes associated with ADHD, such as low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) and Crem, are discussed. Source

Sakane N.,Clinical Research Institute | Sato J.,Nagoya University | Tsushita K.,Comprehensive Health Science Center | Tsujii S.,Diabetes Center | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2016

The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), primarily expressed in adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. The present study hypothesized that ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) polymorphisms modulate the effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Data were analyzed from 112 patients with impaired glucose tolerance in the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention trial, randomized to either an intensive lifestyle intervention group or usual care group. Changes in weight and metabolic parameters were measured after the 6-month intervention. The ADRB3 polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Non-carriers showed a greater weight reduction compared with the carriers in both the lifestyle intervention group and usual care group, and a greater increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the carriers only in the lifestyle intervention group. ADRB3 polymorphisms could influence the effects of lifestyle interventions on weight and lipid parameters in impaired glucose tolerance patients. © 2016 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Source

Ogata J.,Hirakata General Hospital for Developmental Disorders | Yamanishi H.,Hirakata General Hospital for Developmental Disorders | Ishibashi-Ueda H.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2011

J. Ogata, H. Yamanishi and H. Ishibashi-Ueda (2011) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology37, 40-55 Role of cerebral vessels in ischaemic injury of the brainThis review discusses the pathological changes in the heart and vessels underlying brain ischaemic injury, with a major focus on atherosclerotic disease of the brain induced by lesions of the extracranial cervical and major intracranial arteries and small-vessel disease of the brain. The carotid bifurcation is the primary site for atherosclerotic changes, for which extensive clinical trials and pathological analyses on carotid endarterectomy specimens have been performed. Plaque rupture and erosion give rise to thrombus formation, which leads to brain ischaemic injury. These changes have much in common with atherosclerotic lesions of the subepicardial coronary arteries. Emboli of various types of particles are characteristics of brain ischaemic injury. Thrombi rich in fibrin and red blood cells (red thrombi) that develop in the cardiac chambers are common sources of cerebral emboli. Small-vessel disease of the brain induces fibrinoid necrosis, microaneurysm, fibrohyalinosis, lipohyalinosis and microatheroma, changes commonly associated with hypertension. The acute hypertensive small-vessel changes organize to create segmental arterial disorganization and deep small infarcts when they escape from rupture. Some specific vascular diseases responsible for brain ischaemic injury are briefly reviewed also. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society. Source

Li W.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Okuda A.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Yamamoto H.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Yamanishi K.,Hyogo College of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Human γδ T cells augment host defense against tumors and infections, and might have a therapeutic potential in immunotherapy. However, mechanism of γδ T cell proliferation is unclear, and therefore it is difficult to prepare sufficient numbers of γδ T cells for clinical immunotherapy. Recently, natural killer (NK)-like CD56 brightCD11c+ cells were shown to promote the proliferation of γδ T cells in an IL-18-dependent manner. In this study, we demonstrated that the NK-like CD56brightCD11c+ cells could directly interact with γδ T cells to promote their sustained expansion, while conventional dendritic cells (DCs), IFN-α-induced DCs, plasmacytoid DCs or monocytes did not. We also examined the cellular mechanism underlying the regulation of CD56brightCD11c+ cells. CD14+ monocytes pre-incubated with IL-2/IL-18 formed intensive interactions with CD56intCD11c+ cells to promote their differentiation to CD56brightCD11c+ cells with helper function. The development of CD56brightCD11c+ cells was suppressed in an IFN-α dependent manner. These results indicate that CD14+ monocytes pretreated with IL-2/IL-18, but neither DCs nor monocytes, play a determining role on the development and proliferation of CD56brightCD11c+ cells, which in turn modulate the expansion of γδ T cells. CD56brightCD11c+ NK-like cells may be a novel target for immunotherapy utilizing γδ T cells, by overcoming the limitation of γδ T cells proliferation. © 2013 Li et al. Source

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