Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute

Pune, India

Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute

Pune, India
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Khadilkar A.V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Chiplonkar S.A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Pandit D.S.,Agharkar Research Institute | Kinare A.S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar V.V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate the possible association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and arterial stiffness in Indian children with parental MS status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 140 overweight/obese and 60 normal-weight Indian children (mean age, 11.4 6±2.8 years) along with one of their parents during 2008-2009. Data on weight, height, blood pressure, serum lipids, zinc, insulin, and glucose were collected. Intima media thickness (CIMT) and stiffness parameters were assessed in the right carotid artery. Physical activity and diet were assessed using structured questionnaires. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: A gradual increase in the percentage of MS children with an increasing number of MS components in parents was observed. Mean values for arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, and elastic modulus were significantly higher in MS children of MS parents than in MS children of normal parents (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed for lifestyle, metabolic, and arterial parameters among child-parent pairs (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression revealed that children's CIMT and arterial stiffness were significantly associated (p < 0.01) with their serum levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and zinc, as well as with parental MSCIMT. Conclusion: Parental MS status and lifestyle factors increase the risk of MS and arterial abnormalities in children.

Kajale N.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Chiponkar S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Unni J.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Mansukhani N.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objectives: During lactation, traditional food supplements (TFS) are commonly consumed in India to increase lactation performance and health of mothers. TFS are rich in fats, nuts, dry fruits, and sugars and indulging in such supplements for 3 to 6 mo postpartum may put the mother at risk for obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient quality of TFS and its effect on nutritional status of lactating mothers and infant's weight gain in first 6 mo after delivery. Methods: A random sample of 125 Indian urban lactating mothers (28.9 ± 3.2 y) was assessed within 6 mo postpartum for anthropometry, diet by 24-h recall on 3 random days, along with socioeconomic factors, lactation history, and infant's birth weight and current weight. Results: Among 18 different TFS, 50% TFS were rich in calcium, 33% rich in iron, 38% in zinc, and only 13% were good sources of vitamins. Mothers consuming TFS (n = 75) had significantly higher fat intakes than mothers consuming no TFS Supplements (NTS; n = 50). A higher weight gain was seen in TFS mothers (10.5%) than NTS mothers (8.8%) after adjusting for number of days after delivery, parity, mother's age, and breast-feeding practices (P < 0.05). Percent weight gain in infants of TFS mothers (120.7% ± 7.3%) was higher than in infants of NTS mothers (96.2% ± 7.8%; P = 0.024) after adjusting for infant's age and mother's breast-feeding practices. Conclusion: TFS may be modified to increase its micronutrient quality and to reduce fat contents with the goal of reducing the risk for obesity in mothers, while still benefiting infant growth. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Kulkarni V.,PRAYAS | Joshi S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Gupte N.,Bj Medical College Clinical Trial Unit | Parchure R.,PRAYAS | And 3 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

A declining prevalence of HIV among young women has been reported by the public sector implementing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, sentinel surveillance sites and research institutions in India. However, there are no reports evaluating such trends from the private healthcare sector. This study is a retrospective analysis of data collected by PRAYAS as a part of the PMTCT programme at Sane Guruji Hospital (SGH), a secondary care hospital in Pune, India. Women attending the antenatal clinic at SGH were screened for HIV following a group counselling session, with an option to opt out. Between January 2003 and March 2008, the overall HIV prevalence was 111/17 578 (0.6%, 95% CI 0.5-0.7%). The HIV prevalence among antenatal women was 1.1% in 2003 and 0.2% in 2008 (i.e. 82% decline in HIV prevalence over the 5-year period) and the odds ratio (OR) of HIV prevalence declined by 0.24 per year from 2003 to March 2008 (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.87; P<0.001). The risk of having HIV infection was significantly higher in women aged ≥24. years and those who were uneducated. To our knowledge, this is the first report from any private sector health system in India documenting a declining HIV prevalence among antenatal women. Characterising the risk profile of this small percentage of at-risk women will help in planning prevention strategies. © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Pandit D.,Agharkar Research Institute | Kinare A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Chiplonkar S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate carotid arterial stiffness and intima media thickness (IMT) in obese children in comparison with healthy children, and to examine associations of lipid profile and blood pressure with carotid artery morphology. Methods: Anthropometric and blood parameters were assessed in 44 overweight, 95 obese (6 - 17 years) and 69 healthy age-matched normal children. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and stiffness and IMT of the common carotid artery were evaluated using Aloka α 10 equipment. Results: Anthropometric and lipid parameters were signifi- cantly higher in overweight and obese than in normal children (p<0.05). Stiffness ( β ), pulse wave velocity (PWV), elastic modulus (Ep) and blood pressure were significantly higher in obese and overweight children than in normal children (p<0.05). However, overweight and obese children did not show any significant difference in IMT compared with normal children (p>0.1). Significant positive correlation of PWV, β and Ep and negative correlation of arterial compliance with body fat and triglyceride was noted (p<0.05). Different multinomial regression models for each e-Tracking parameter indicated that the relative risk of hypertension was highest with high PWV, followed by LDL cholesterol, Ep and body fat. Conclusion: PWV may be considered an important marker for evaluation of early functional changes of the carotid artery in children and adolescents. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.

Kadam N.,Agharkar Research Institute | Chiplonkar S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Divate U.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Objective. To assess the prevalence and the relative importance of risk factors for low bone mass in Indian pre-and post-menopausal women. Methods.Data were collected on anthropometry and lifestyle factors in apparently healthy 80 pre-and 92 post-menopausal (4075 years) women. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were analysed for Parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcium and zinc. Results.BMD at all three sites was significantly lower in post-menopausal than the pre-menopausal women (p<0.001). Prevalence of osteoporosis was highest at the lumbar spine (25.8) in post-menopausal women, while prevalence of osteopenia was high in pre-menopausal women (44.3). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 54.5 pre and 41.8 post-menopausal women and significant correlation of serum 25(OH)D levels (r=0.16) was obtained only for total hip Z-score (p<0.05). Correlation between sun index and lumbar spine BMD was marginally significant (r=0.14, p=0.07). Generalised linear models revealed that after adjusting for age, weight and height, percent decrease of 2.1-4.5 in BMD may be attributed to menopause. Conclusion.Age, weight, height, menopause, low intakes of calcium and low 25(OH)D along with poor sunlight exposure are the major factors contributing to bone loss in Indian women above 40 years of age. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

Khadilkar A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Kadam N.,Agharkar Research Institute | Chiplonkar S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Fischer P.R.,Mayo Medical School | Khadilkar V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute
Bone | Year: 2012

Low adult bone mass is linked to osteoporosis and fractures and is dependent on the extent of childhood and adolescent bone mineralization. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 1-year supplementation of calcium, multivitamin with zinc along with vitamin-D on bone mass accrual of school-going premenarchal girls from low income groups in Pune, India. Double-blind, matched-pair, cluster, randomization study was carried out in 214 premenarchal girls (8-12. years) from 2 schools in Pune, India. The two schools together formed 3 classes with 3 clusters each of age-matched girls of which one cluster was allocated to either one of the intervention groups (Ca-group:500. mg/d calcium, Ca + MZ-group:500. mg/d calcium + multivitamin tablet containing 15. mg/d zinc) or control group (C-group: multivitamin tablet without any minerals); all subjects received vitamin-D supplementation. Anthropometry, biochemical parameters, total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) and bone mineral density (TBBMD) (Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline and endline. Post supplementation, mean percent increase in TBBMC was significantly higher in Ca-group (22.3%) and Ca + MZ-group (20.8%) compared to C-group (17.6%) (p < 0.05) with no significant differences observed between Ca + MZ and Ca groups (p > 0.1). Improvement in TBBMC-for-age Z-scores was higher in the two calcium supplemented groups (13.6%-22%) compared to the C-group (no improvement). Calcium supplementation, with or without multivitamins and zinc, showed a promising improvement in bone health especially with regards to improvement in bone related Z-scores in our population of underprivileged premenarchal girls. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Mauck C.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | Joshi S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Joshi S.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Schwartz J.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | And 2 more authors.
Contraception | Year: 2011

Background: We report on the functional performance, safety and acceptability of the 90-mm Reddy female condom in two clinical trials, one in Los Angeles, CA, and one in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Study Design: Both studies used a Phase I, crossover design involving 25 couples. Each couple used three condoms of each of two shaft lengths: in Los Angeles, shaft lengths of 150 and 90 mm were used; in Pune, shaft lengths of 120 and 90 mm were used. This paper focuses on the 90-mm condom since it is commercially available. The primary endpoint of each study was invagination, defined as the outer frame of the condom being pushed into the vagina during intercourse. Secondary functionality endpoints included nonclinical breakage, clinical breakage, penile misdirection and complete slippage. Results: Invagination occurred in 26.9% of uses in Los Angeles vs. 6.8% of uses in Pune. Penile misdirection and complete slippage were reported only in Pune during 4.0% and 9.5% of uses, respectively. There were two clinical breaks in Pune and none in Los Angeles. Total clinical failure was 26.9% in Los Angeles and 23.0% in Pune. Conclusions: Two clinical studies of the 90-mm Reddy female condom suggest that its functional performance is inferior to other female condoms. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Khadilkar V.V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Khadilkar A.V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Borade A.B.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Chiplonkar S.A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Objective: To develop age and sex specific cut- offs for BMI to screen for overweight and obesity in Indian children linked to an adult BMI of 23 and 28 kg/m2 respectively, using contemporary Indian data. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Multicentric, School based. Participants: 19834 children were measured from 11 affluent schools from five major geographical regions of India. Data were analyzed using the LMS method, which constructs growth reference percentiles adjusted for skewness. Results: Compared to the cut-offs suggested for European populations and those by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2007 Guidelines, the age and sex specific cut off points for body mass index for overweight and obesity for Indian children suggested by this study are lower. Conclusions: Contemporary cross-sectional age and sex specific BMI cut-offs for Indian children linked to Asian cutoffs of 23 and 28 kg/m 2 for the assessment of risk of overweight and obesity, respectively are presented.

Chiplonkar S.A.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Kawade R.,Shahu College road
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2014

A cross-sectional study (n = 403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7 mg/l) and EZ (<8 μg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r =-0.41,-0.34), RRT (r =-0.49,-0.4), and positively with Memory (r = 0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r = 0.39, 0.31; p < 0.05) and remained significant after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and hemoglobin. RTS was impaired in 18.3% girls and significantly correlated with EZ (r =-0.31, p < 0.05). Zinc deficiency in adolescent girls was associated with poor cognition and taste function implying need for improving their dietary zinc intakes. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Queensland, Starship Paediatric Diabetes and Endocrinology, The Childrens Hospital at Westmead, University of Western Australia and 31 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome biology | Year: 2016

Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypic sex is atypical. Clinical management of DSD is often difficult and currently only 13% of patients receive an accurate clinical genetic diagnosis. To address this we have developed a massively parallel sequencing targeted DSD gene panel which allows us to sequence all 64 known diagnostic DSD genes and candidate genes simultaneously.We analyzed DNA from the largest reported international cohort of patients with DSD (278 patients with 46,XY DSD and 48 with 46,XX DSD). Our targeted gene panel compares favorably with other sequencing platforms. We found a total of 28 diagnostic genes that are implicated in DSD, highlighting the genetic spectrum of this disorder. Sequencing revealed 93 previously unreported DSD gene variants. Overall, we identified a likely genetic diagnosis in 43% of patients with 46,XY DSD. In patients with 46,XY disorders of androgen synthesis and action the genetic diagnosis rate reached 60%. Surprisingly, little difference in diagnostic rate was observed between singletons and trios. In many cases our findings are informative as to the likely cause of the DSD, which will facilitate clinical management.Our massively parallel sequencing targeted DSD gene panel represents an economical means of improving the genetic diagnostic capability for patients affected by DSD. Implementation of this panel in a large cohort of patients has expanded our understanding of the underlying genetic etiology of DSD. The inclusion of research candidate genes also provides an invaluable resource for future identification of novel genes.

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