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Baratelli M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Cordoba L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Maldonado J.,HIPRA | Fraile L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science

Swine influenza virus is one of the most important pathogens involved in the swine respiratory disease complex. Recent serological surveys showed a high prevalence of swine influenza strains belonging to the H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes circulating in pigs in Spain. However, little is known about their genome sequence. Five swine influenza strains were isolated from some unrelated outbreaks occurred during 2006-2007, and their complete genome sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to the lineages "Avian-Like" H1N1, "Human-Like" H3N2, and "Human-Like" H1N2, showing tight relationships with early or contemporary strains described in Europe. Notably, one virus of the H1N2 subtype showed genetic and antigenic divergence with the European contemporary strains or vaccinal strains of the same subtype, suggesting that some local and divergent clusters of the virus may pass unnoticed in routinary subtyping. Finally, analysis on the entire pattern of genome segments suggested that a second reassortment event could have influenced the evolution of that divergent H1N2 strain. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rojo-Montejo S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Collantes-Fernandez E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Marcos S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Perez-Zaballos F.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.

The worldwide economic impact of Neospora caninum infection has caused the development of effective vaccines to become one of the main goals in the field of neosporosis research. In this study, the protection conferred by antigens from inactivated whole tachyzoites (TZ) and a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture (TZ-BZ) of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 isolate) incorporated into a water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) and aluminium hydroxide-ginseng extract (Al/G) was evaluated in mouse models of congenital and cerebral N. caninum infection. Immunization with TZ-BZ induced congenital and cerebral neosporosis exacerbation that was mainly characterized by reduced neonatal median survival time and increased parasite presence in adult mouse brains. The immune response of mice immunized with TZ-BZ was characterized by an increase in IFN-γ expression prior to challenge and an increase in IL-4 expression accompanied with significantly higher levels of antibodies against 2 recombinant bradyzoite-specific proteins (rNcSAG4 and rNcBSR4) after challenge. Immunization with TZ in W/O significantly reduced neonatal mortality, vertical transmission as well as parasite presence in adult mouse brains and induced a strong humoral immune response. The current study demonstrates the critical role of stage-specific antigens and adjuvants on the development of effective inactivated vaccines for the prevention of N. caninum infection. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011. Source

Klitgaard K.,Technical University of Denmark | Breto A.F.,HIPRA | Boye M.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen T.K.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Modern pyrosequencing technology allows for a more comprehensive approach than traditional Sanger sequencing for elucidating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of treponemes in digital dermatitis lesions by using deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. Treponema-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs and pyrosequencing were performed on biopsy specimens originating from 10 different Catalan dairy herds (n = 36) with digital dermatitis, and this analysis yielded 75,297 sequences. We identified 20 different taxa, including a potentially novel phylotype that displayed 95% sequence identity to members of the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like cluster. Species frequencies and abundances that were determined by pyrosequencing analysis were highly correlated with the results of fluorescent in situ hybridization using phylotype-specific oligonucleotide probes. In a limited number of animals from a single geographic region, we detected most of the Treponema phylotypes that were described in previous investigations of digital dermatitis. Additionally, we identified a number of phylotypes that mapped to oral treponemes of humans and dogs that had not been reported for digital dermatitis lesions. The results presented here support previous observations of a polytreponemal etiology of infections, with Treponema phagedenis-like, Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, and T. denticola/T. pedis-like phylotypes being highly associated with disease. Using this new approach, it has become feasible to study large herds and their surrounding environments, which might provide a basis for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Azevedo C.,HIPRA | Pacheco D.,University of Evora | Soares L.,Sao Miguel Young Farmers Association | Romao R.,University of Evora | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production

This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Simon G.,Swine Virology Immunology Unit | Larsen L.E.,Technical University of Denmark | Durrwald R.,IDT | Foni E.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna | And 28 more authors.

Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections. © 2014 Simon et al. Source

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