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Amer, Spain
Amer, Spain
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The objective of the present study was to analyze an extracellular component from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which we refer to as slime associated antigenic complex (SAAC), and to investigate the role of SAAC-specific antibody production in protection from S. aureus bovine mastitis. Twelve primiparous gestating cows were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: Group 1 was vaccinated with a S. aureus bacterin with very limited SAAC content; Group 2 received a S. aureus bacterin with high SAAC content and Group 3 served as unvaccinated controls. Animals were vaccinated at 45 days before the expected parturition date and revaccinated 35 days later. All groups were challenged by intramammary infusion with a virulent heterologous strain of S. aureus 23 days after calving. Antibody response against SAAC in serum and in milk, general clinical signs, mastitis score, somatic cell count (SCC) and count of S. aureus in milk were evaluated before and after challenge. Immunization with a high SAAC content in the S. aureus bacterin (Group 2) significantly enhanced antibody titers against SAAC (in serum and milk) and reduced the S. aureus concentration in milk during the post-challenge period compared to Group 1 and Group 3. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between SAAC antibody production on the day of the challenge and the S. aureus count in milk by 1 day after challenge. However, there was no evidence of a difference between vaccinated and control groups with regard to clinical signs of mastitis following the challenge. Nevertheless, the SAAC antibody concentration on the day of the challenge negatively correlated with the mastitis score in quarters infected with S. aureus at 2 days post-challenge. These results indicate that the vaccines did not prevent S. aureus intramammary infection (IMI) after the experimental challenge, but immunization with a S. aureus bacterin with high SAAC content was able to reduce S. aureus multiplication in the mammary gland after challenge and suggests that the SAAC-specific antibody response could be involved in the protection against S. aureus intramammary infection. Although further studies should be performed to confirm the efficacy (under experimental conditions and in field trials), we propose bacterins from strong biofilm-producing bacteria and with high SAAC content, rather than with limited SAAC content, as a cost-efficient vaccine design against S. aureus bovine mastitis. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Reperant J.-M.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Dardi M.,HIPRA | Pages M.,HIPRA | Thomas-Henaff M.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012

Eimeria praecox and Eimeria acervulina are two species of coccidia parasites infecting chickens, which develop in the duodenum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of E. praecox and to study interactions of this coccidium with E. acervulina. The results showed that the pathogenicity of E. praecox was related to the infective dose, and that its impact on individual weight and weight gain was significant from the lowest administered dose: 5000 oocysts per bird. No morbidity was observed, even with the highest infective dose, but faecal consistency alteration was higher with increasing infective doses. No consistent lesion was observed. When E. praecox was associated with E. acervulina with a low infective dose, performance deterioration seemed to be an additional effect of the two species. However, in the case of heavy infections, signs worsened along with duration of negative impact on growth, compared to a mono-infection. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Rojo-Montejo S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Collantes-Fernandez E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Regidor-Cerrillo J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Bertos A.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2011

In this study, the protection afforded by a Neospora caninum inactivated vaccine formulated with three different adjuvants (water-in-oil emulsion, aluminum hydroxide with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminum hydroxide with ginseng extract) and three different parasite doses (10 5, 5×10 5 or 10 6 inactivated whole tachyzoites) was evaluated using a mouse model. Mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at three-week intervals with inactivated Nc-Spain 1H tachyzoites and challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation with 10 6 live Nc-1 tachyzoites. The efficacy of the immunization was evaluated in non-pregnant BALB/c mice on days 1 and 5 (acute infection phase) and days 14 and 30 (chronic infection phase) post-challenge. The results showed the ability of water-in-oil emulsion combined with inactivated 5×10 5 tachyzoites to induce protection against neosporosis during the chronic stage, limiting parasite multiplication in the brain. Aluminum hydroxide-ginseng extract and inactivated tachyzoites reduced the number of parasites circulating in the blood during acute phase but failed to limit the establishment of chronic infection. On the other hand, a dose-effect was observed in groups vaccinated with aluminum hydroxide-ginseng extract in which the lesion severity increased as the inactivated tachyzoite dose. This study demonstrates that efficacy can significantly vary depending on the adjuvant, the dose of antigen and the phase of N. caninum infection in which the vaccine is tested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Shrestha A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Palmieri N.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Abd-Elfattah A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Ruttkowski B.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2017

Background: The genome of the apicomplexan parasite Cystoisospora suis (syn. Isospora suis) has recently been sequenced and annotated, opening the possibility for the identification of novel therapeutic targets against cystoisosporosis. It was previously proposed that a 42 kDa uncharacterized merozoite protein, encoded by gene CSUI_005805, might be a relevant vaccine candidate due to its high immunogenic score, high expression level and species-specificity as determined in silico. Methods: The 1170 bp coding sequence of the CSUI_005805 gene was PCR amplified and cloned into the bacterial expression vector pQE-31. The specificity of the expressed recombinant protein was evaluated in an immunoblot, and relative levels of expression in different developmental stages and subcellular localization were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, respectively. Results: The CSUI_005805 gene encoded for a 389 amino acid protein containing a histidine-rich region. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CSUI_005805 was differentially expressed during the early development of C. suis in vitro, with higher transcript levels in merozoites compared to sporozoites. The recombinant protein was specifically recognized by sera from chicken immunized with recombinant CSUI_005805 protein and sera from piglets experimentally infected with C. suis, all of which suggested that despite prokaryotic expression, the recombinant CSUI_005805 protein maintained antigenic determinants and could elicit an immune response in the host. Immunofluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy revealed localization primarily at the surface of the parasite. Conclusions: The results suggest that CSUI_005805 is highly expressed in merozoites and might thus be critical for their survival and establishment inside host cells. Owing to its specificity, localization and expression pattern, CSUI_005805 could be exploited as an attractive candidate for alternative control strategies against C. suis such as vaccines. © 2017 The Author(s).


Azevedo C.,HIPRA | Pacheco D.,University of Évora | Soares L.,Sao Miguel Young Farmers Association | Romao R.,University of Évora | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. © 2015, The Author(s).


Rojo-Montejo S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Collantes-Fernandez E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Marcos S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Perez-Zaballos F.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2011

The worldwide economic impact of Neospora caninum infection has caused the development of effective vaccines to become one of the main goals in the field of neosporosis research. In this study, the protection conferred by antigens from inactivated whole tachyzoites (TZ) and a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture (TZ-BZ) of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 isolate) incorporated into a water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) and aluminium hydroxide-ginseng extract (Al/G) was evaluated in mouse models of congenital and cerebral N. caninum infection. Immunization with TZ-BZ induced congenital and cerebral neosporosis exacerbation that was mainly characterized by reduced neonatal median survival time and increased parasite presence in adult mouse brains. The immune response of mice immunized with TZ-BZ was characterized by an increase in IFN-γ expression prior to challenge and an increase in IL-4 expression accompanied with significantly higher levels of antibodies against 2 recombinant bradyzoite-specific proteins (rNcSAG4 and rNcBSR4) after challenge. Immunization with TZ in W/O significantly reduced neonatal mortality, vertical transmission as well as parasite presence in adult mouse brains and induced a strong humoral immune response. The current study demonstrates the critical role of stage-specific antigens and adjuvants on the development of effective inactivated vaccines for the prevention of N. caninum infection. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.


Baratelli M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Cordoba L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Maldonado J.,Hipra | Fraile L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2014

Swine influenza virus is one of the most important pathogens involved in the swine respiratory disease complex. Recent serological surveys showed a high prevalence of swine influenza strains belonging to the H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes circulating in pigs in Spain. However, little is known about their genome sequence. Five swine influenza strains were isolated from some unrelated outbreaks occurred during 2006-2007, and their complete genome sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to the lineages "Avian-Like" H1N1, "Human-Like" H3N2, and "Human-Like" H1N2, showing tight relationships with early or contemporary strains described in Europe. Notably, one virus of the H1N2 subtype showed genetic and antigenic divergence with the European contemporary strains or vaccinal strains of the same subtype, suggesting that some local and divergent clusters of the virus may pass unnoticed in routinary subtyping. Finally, analysis on the entire pattern of genome segments suggested that a second reassortment event could have influenced the evolution of that divergent H1N2 strain. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Klitgaard K.,Technical University of Denmark | Breto A.F.,HIPRA | Boye M.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen T.K.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Modern pyrosequencing technology allows for a more comprehensive approach than traditional Sanger sequencing for elucidating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of treponemes in digital dermatitis lesions by using deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. Treponema-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs and pyrosequencing were performed on biopsy specimens originating from 10 different Catalan dairy herds (n = 36) with digital dermatitis, and this analysis yielded 75,297 sequences. We identified 20 different taxa, including a potentially novel phylotype that displayed 95% sequence identity to members of the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like cluster. Species frequencies and abundances that were determined by pyrosequencing analysis were highly correlated with the results of fluorescent in situ hybridization using phylotype-specific oligonucleotide probes. In a limited number of animals from a single geographic region, we detected most of the Treponema phylotypes that were described in previous investigations of digital dermatitis. Additionally, we identified a number of phylotypes that mapped to oral treponemes of humans and dogs that had not been reported for digital dermatitis lesions. The results presented here support previous observations of a polytreponemal etiology of infections, with Treponema phagedenis-like, Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, and T. denticola/T. pedis-like phylotypes being highly associated with disease. Using this new approach, it has become feasible to study large herds and their surrounding environments, which might provide a basis for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Sao Miguel Young Farmers Association, University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro, HIPRA and University of Évora
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary record open | Year: 2016

The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the influence of using mobile (n=47) or fixed (n=45) milking machines in Azorean herds on the apparent prevalence of several milk pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) and (2) to determine whether separated subclinical mastitic cows can serve, in real time, as predictors of milk pathogen prevalence for the remaining animals at the herd level. The use of a mobile or fixed milking machine influenced (P0.05) the prevalence of


PubMed | Sao Miguel Young Farmers Association, University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro, HIPRA and University of Évora
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in So Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35% of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P<0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P<0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P<0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in So Miguel Island also should be further investigated.

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