Hinthada, Myanmar
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Soe A.N.,Ministry of Education | Chavasseau O.,CNRS Institute of Paleoprimatology, Human Paleontoly: Evolution and Paleoenvironments | Chaimanee Y.,CNRS Institute of Paleoprimatology, Human Paleontoly: Evolution and Paleoenvironments | Sein C.,Hinthada University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2017

We describe an exceptionally well preserved skull of a small anthracothere from the late middle Eocene of the Pondaung Formation that can be confidently attributed to Siamotherium pondaungensis, a species that was first diagnosed on the basis of a fragmentary maxilla preserving two upper molars. The new material confirms that Siamotherium pondaungensis is an anthracothere and not a helohyid as repeatedly suggested. According to its dentition and skull structure, Siamotherium pondaungensis was most likely a terrestrial, open-forest animal with an omnivorous diet that showed no significant adaptation to folivory. A phylogenetic analysis that includes both species of Siamotherium confirms their basal position within the Hippopotamoidea. SUPPLEMENTAL DATA—Supplemental materials are available for this article for free at www.tandfonline.com/UJVP Citation for this article: Soe, Aung Naing, O. Chavasseau, Y. Chaimanee, Chit Sein, J.-J. Jaeger, X. Valentin, and S. Ducrocq. 2017. New remains of Siamotherium pondaungensis (Cetartiodactyla, Hippopotamoidea) from the Eocene of Pondaung, Myanmar: Paleoecologic and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1270290. 2017 © by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology


Ith S.,Royal University of Phnom Penh | Soisook P.,Prince of Songkla University | Bumrungsri S.,Prince of Songkla University | Kingston T.,Texas Tech University | And 8 more authors.
Acta Chiropterologica | Year: 2011

Recent field studies have provided new data for a review of the taxonomy, acoustic characters, distribution, and ecology of two often confused rhinolophid species, which have essentially parapatric distributions in continental Southeast Asia. Rhinolophus coelophyllus is widespread ranging from northern Myanmar to northern Malaysia, eastern Thailand and provisionally western Lao PDR. R. shameli is restricted to eastern Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR, and central and southern Vietnam. There are well defined differences in skull morphology, size, and echolocation call frequency, which discriminate between the two taxa. © Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.


Puechmaille S.J.,University College Dublin | Puechmaille S.J.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Gouilh M.A.,Mahidol University | Gouilh M.A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 10 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2011

The sensory drive theory of speciation predicts that populations of the same species inhabiting different environments can differ in sensory traits, and that this sensory difference can ultimately drive speciation. However, even in the best-known examples of sensory ecology driven speciation, it is uncertain whether the variation in sensory traits is the cause or the consequence of a reduction in levels of gene flow. Here we show strong genetic differentiation, no gene flow and large echolocation differences between the allopatric Myanmar and Thai populations of the world's smallest mammal, Craseonycteris thonglongyai, and suggest that geographic isolation most likely preceded sensory divergence. Within the geographically continuous Thai population, we show that geographic distance has a primary role in limiting gene flow rather than echolocation divergence. In line with sensory-driven speciation models, we suggest that in C. thonglongyai, limited gene flow creates the suitable conditions that favour the evolution of sensory divergence via local adaptation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Licht A.,University of Arizona | Licht A.,CNRS Institute of Paleoprimatology, Human Paleontoly: Evolution and Paleoenvironments | Licht A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Boura A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 4 more authors.
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2015

The late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation, Myanmar, has yielded a diversified assemblage of silicified wood including some of the earliest recorded Dipterocarpaceae. However, mid-Palaeogene fossil wood from Asia remains rarely described. We present here three additional species of fossil wood from the upper member of the Pondaung Formation, including a new species of Menispermoxylon (M. mowglii nov. spec.) with successive cambia and included phloem, and two specimens of the fossil genera Glutoxylon (G. burmense Chowdhury) and Heritieroxylon (H. arunachalensis Lakhanpal, Prakash et Awasthi). These three fossil species are related to modern taxa of mangrove and coastal forests in the Bengal Bay and complete the floral assemblage already identified in the Pondaung Formation. The late middle Eocene fossil woods of Myanmar followed a toposequence with mangroves along the seashore, riparian elements similar to those of modern Terai ecosystem in the upper delta plain, and dry dipterocarp forests in the upstream areas of the drainage basin. The latter two assemblages and their association in the landscape are typical of monsoonal areas with significant rainfall and a marked dry season, thus confirming recent studies showing that the Bengal Bay has experienced a significant monsoonal regime as early as 40. Ma ago. The climatic parameters obtained by two quantitative botanical approaches on the Pondaung fossil wood, the coexistence and wood anatomical approaches, suggest similar-to-modern rainfall amount, marked dry season, and warmer annual temperature for the Eocene of Myanmar. They thus support the hypothesis that monsoonal rainfall at that time may have been favored by Eocene greenhouse conditions. However, despite the homogeneity of the Pondaung floral assemblage, several resulting climatic parameters, such as the mean annual temperature (for the coexistence approach) or the mean annual rainfall (for the wood anatomical approach), display large but incomplete uncertainty intervals or unlikely values (for the coexistence and wood anatomical approaches respectively). These limitations can be attributed to the lack of super-warm and super-seasonal stations in their modern databases. It thus indicates that results from both quantitative approaches should be interpreted with caution for palaeo-monsoon reconstruction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Coster P.,Section of Vertebrate Paleontology | Beard K.C.,Section of Vertebrate Paleontology | Soe A.N.,Defense Services Academy | Sein C.,Hinthada University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2013

The extinct Southeast Asian primate family Amphipithecidae is regularly cited in discussions of anthropoid origins, but its phylogenetic position remains controversial. In part, the lack of consensus regarding amphipithecid relationships can be attributed to uncertainty regarding the homology of upper molar structures in this group. Here, we describe a virtually pristine upper molar of Pondaungia cotteri from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, which is the first example of a relatively unworn and well-preserved amphipithecid upper molar ever recovered. The distolingual upper molar cusp in this new specimen of Pondaungia appears to be a lingually displaced and enlarged metaconule, rather than a hypocone or pseudohypocone as previous workers have thought. Reassessment of the upper molar morphology of other amphipithecids and putative amphipithecids reveals a very similar pattern in Siamopithecus, Myanmarpithecus and Ganlea, all of which are interpreted as having upper molars showing many of the same derived features apparent in Pondaungia. In contrast, the upper molar morphology of Bugtipithecus diverges radically from that of undoubted amphipithecids, and the latter taxon is excluded from Amphipithecidae on this basis. Phylogenetic analyses of several character-taxon matrices culled from the recent literature and updated to reflect the new information on amphipithecid upper molar morphology yield similar results. Consensus tree topologies derived from these analyses support amphipithecid monophyly and stable relationships within Amphipithecidae. Amphipithecids appear to be stem members of the anthropoid clade. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Egi N.,Kyoto University | Thaung-Htike,Shwebo Degree College | Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein,Mandalay University | Maung-Maung,Hinthada University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata+. javanica+. edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein,Mandalay University | Takai M.,Kyoto University | Uno H.,University of Tokyo | Wynn J.G.,University of South Florida | And 7 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2011

The tooth enamel of a mammalian fauna from the uppermost Miocene/lower Pliocene Irrawaddy sediments at Chaingzauk, west-central Myanmar were analyzed using stable carbon and oxygen isotopes. The δ13C values of porcupines, tragulids, rhinocerotids, suids and proboscideans show that these mammals preferentially consumed C3 plants in a wooded environment, whereas the δ13C values of bovids and hippopotamids indicate that they were grassland-adapted grazers to mixed feeders. In contrast to the thorn scrub, grassland and shrubland vegetation of present-day central Myanmar, stable carbon isotope results of the Chaingzauk fauna suggest a presence of wooded environment in the Chaingzauk area at that time. Present-day arid conditions are likely to have been caused by the uplift of the Indo-Burman Ranges due to the Himalayan Orogeny during the late Miocene to Pliocene, resulting in a rainshadow effect in central Myanmar. Furthermore, southward marine regression due to the rapid influx of sediments from the Indo-Burman Ranges, Eastern Himalayan Ranges and Sino-Burman Ranges into the Central Myanmar Basin in the Miocene to Pliocene might have played an important role in the aridification of this region since the lower Pliocene. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ducrocq S.,CNRS Institute of Paleoprimatology, Human Paleontoly: Evolution and Paleoenvironments | Soe A.N.,Defense Services Academy | Sein C.,Hinthada University | Lazzari V.,CNRS Institute of Paleoprimatology, Human Paleontoly: Evolution and Paleoenvironments | And 3 more authors.
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2016

A fragmentary maxilla referred to a new diacodexeid artiodactyl, Magwetherium burmense, n. gen. and sp., is described from Sabapondaung locality in the middle Eocene Pondaung Formation in Myanmar. Comparisons with other basal artiodactyls known in the Eocene of Asia, Europe, and North America reveal that this unexpected new taxon displays an unusual combination of derived and primitive features. Magwetherium further displays more morphological affinities with the diacodexeid Jiangsudon from the middle Eocene Shanghuang fissure fillings in eastern China than with any other Holarctic dichobunoids. This study also suggests that fossil remains from Pondaung recently described as indeterminate artiodactyls can likely be referred to dichobunids. The occurrence of a diacodexeid artiodactyl in Southeast Asia extends the fossil record of the family in this part of the continent, it represents the youngest representative of the family, and it further documents the adaptive radiation of diacodexeids in Asia during the Eocene. © 2016 Paläontologische Gesellschaft

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