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Udasimath S.,HIMS | Arakeril S.U.,BLDEAs Shri BM Patil Medical College | Karigowdar M.H.,BLDEAs Shri BM Patil Medical College | Yelikar B.R.,BLDEAs Shri BM Patil Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Background: The Cell Block (CB) technique is one of the oldest methods which is used for the evaluation of body cavity fluids. The accurate identification of the cells as either malignant or reactive mesothelial cells is a diagnostic problem in cytological conventional Smears (CS). As compared to the older methods, a new method of cell block preparation which is being used, which uses 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixative, increases the cellularity, gives better morphological details and helps in improving the sensitivity of the diagnosis. Multiple sections can be obtained by the CB method for the special stains and immunohistochemistry studies. Aims: To know the role, utility and the sensitivity of the cell block method in the diagnosis of malignant ascitic fluid effusions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Cytology Section of the Department of Pathology. 44 peritoneal fluid samples were subjected to a diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. The cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixing agent along with the CS. The cellularity, architectural patterns, morphological details and the cytoplasmic and the nuclear details were studied both in the CS and the CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2 test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy which was obtained by the CB method. Results: The additional yield for malignancy was 13.63% more as was obtained by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological details and an additional yield for malignant cells. Therefore, the CB technique could be considered as a useful adjuvant in evaluating the fluid cytology for a final cytodiagnosis, along with the routine CS method.

Qayoom S.,HIMS | Durga G.,RGCIRC | George S.,RGCIRC | Rahman K.,SGPGI
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2015

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare, aggressive neoplasm classified under acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasm by current WHO classification. Elderly male are commonly affected with cutaneous lesion being the hallmark of disease presentation. The disease progresses rapidly and sooner or later involves bone marrow and peripheral blood. Cases presenting primarily as leukemia without cutaneous involvement is a rarity with about 29 cases reported in literature till date. Characteristic immunophenotype of CD4 + /CD56 +/- cells expressing antigens associated with plasmacytoid dendritic cells like CD123, TCL1, BDCA2/CD303, cutaneous lymphocyte-associated and interferon dependent molecule MxA, in absence of any other lineage specific marker confirms the diagnosis. The disease has a poor survival and no standardized therapeutic strategy in the current scenario. A case of 25-year-male presenting with leukemic BPDCN without cutaneous involvement is presented here, who was treated with AML like protocol followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but succumbed to the disease within 8 months of diagnosis. The present case is being first to be reported from India.

Sinhasan S.P.,Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute | Palachandra A.,HIMS
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2012

Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and causes health problems in endemic countries. The prevalence of primary muscular hydatid disease is reported to be only 0.5% because muscle is an unfavorable site for infestation as a result of its high levels of lactic acid. Primary intramuscular hydatid cyst presents a diagnostic problem not only because of the unusual location and low prevalence, but also because complicated cysts may imitate solid or complex lesions. We report an unusual case of primary hydatidosis of the calf muscles, in which a wide excision was performed without causing any damage to the cyst wall. Injudicious approach in the management of these rare presentations may be the root cause of severe anaphylactic shock and systemic dissemination. Intramuscular hydatid cysts grow gradually and may mimic a soft tissue tumor; thus, the diagnosis of soft-tissue hydatid cysts needs a high index of suspicion.

Sandhir R.K.,St Stephens Hospital | Jindal B.R.,St Stephens Hospital | Sandhir S.,HIMS
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: Depressed scars in the neck pose a cosmetic problem. There is a need to fill the lost tissue volume defect between the surface and deeper tissues. It is preferable that the filling is done by autologous tissue which is available in substantial amount in the adjoining area. There should be no donor site morbidity. Platysma muscle flap meets these criteria. Materials and Methods: Platysma muscle flap was advanced into the defect after excision of depressed scar. The procedure was done under local anesthetic in two patients. Result: The result was a 'good scar' with scar lying in the transversely oriented neck lines. Conclusions: Platysma muscle flap has a definitive role in revision surgery of depressed scars in neck as it provides an ideal tissue for lost tissue volume.

PubMed | HIMS and University of Lucknow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Urology annals | Year: 2017

A young man presented with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and multiple fistulae (watering can) in the perineum since 6 months. Micturating cystourethrogram and retrograde urethrogram was performed after 12 weeks following suprapubic cystostomy which showed bulbar urethral stricture with multiple urethrocutaneous fistulae. He underwent anastomotic urethroplasty and excision of the urethrocutaneous fistulae. Histopathology of the excised fistulous tract showed granulomatous pathology suggestive of tuberculosis. Antitubercular treatment was given for 9 months. The patient is voiding well at 12 months follow-up.

PubMed | Post Graduate Student, Senior Resident and HIMS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2015

In developing countries, corneal diseases are the second leading cause of blindness. This corneal blindness can be treated through corneal transplantation. Though the present infrastructure is strong enough to increase keratoplasty numbers at a required rate, India has largest corneal blind population in the world. So a constant supply of high quality donor corneal tissue is the key factor for reduction of prevalence of corneal blindness. Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor cornea, there is a huge gap in the demand and supply.To study the potential for hospital based retrieval of donor corneal tissue in Hassan district hospital after analysing the indicated and contraindicated causes of deaths, so that hospital corneal retrieval program in Hassan district hospital can be planned.The cross-sectional, retrospective and record-based study included all hospital deaths with age group more than two years occurred during one year period (January 2014 to December 2014). Data regarding demographic profile, cause of death, treatment given and presence of any systemic diseases were collected. The causes of deaths which are contraindicated for the retrieval of corneas were analysed and noted. The contraindications were based on the NPCB guidelines for standard of eye banking in India 2009.Out of 855 deaths, number of deaths in males (565) was greater than females (290). Numbers of deaths were highest between 41-60 years age group (343). Deaths due to HIV, septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, disseminated malignancies were contraindicated for corneal retrieval. Corneas could be retrieved from 736 deaths out of 855. Potential for corneal retrieval in a period of one year in Hassan District hospital was 86%.Hospital corneal retrieval program has got a great potential to bridge the gap between the need for the cornea and actually collected corneas which will contribute enormously in eliminating corneal blindness. In present study there was 86% potential for corneal retrieval among the hospital deaths.

Vyas S.,HIMS
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2016

Background: Optimal infant- and young child-feeding (IYCF) practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. Practices like premature cessation of breastfeeding, early and unnecessary introduction of top feeding in incorrect dilutions and unhygienic pattern are also quite prevalent in many communities thereby aggravating malnutrition in children. The present study was undertaken to assess the feeding practices in the first six months among children less than three years, to know the barriers for the same and to study the effect of feeding practices on their nutritional status. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in all the villages under Rural Health Training Centre, the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine. A total of 500 mothers with their underthree children were included in the study. A Predesigned pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information on feeding practices within the first six months of life. Results: In the present study a total of 160 (33%) children were on top milk of which majority consumed cow’s milk and were fed by bottle (91%). Majority of the mothers diluted milk (87.5%) in the proportion of 1:1 (38%). In appropriate feeding practices were more common males. Infants who had inappropriate feeding practices in the initial six months were found to be maximally undernourished. Conclusion: The present study revealed suboptimal feeding practices in the first six months, which was again found as one of the major risk factor for malnutrition among children. © 2016, Ibn Sina Trust. All rights reserved.

Aggarwal A.,HIMS | Jethani S.L.,HIMS | Rohatgi R.K.,HIMS | Kalra J.,HIMS
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most significant and safe drugs among the antidepressants. Fluoxetine is the prototype drug of SSRIs. Various clinical studies showed that SSRI causes change in body weight in patients. This study was conducted to know the extent of weight change with different doses for different durations. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out whether fluoxetine causes weight gain or weight loss, and to deduce the comparative weight change after intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine for different duration and doses. Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted on 72 adult (36 males and 36 females) albino rats, in 3 phases of 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks duration. Each phase consisted of 24 (12 males and 12 females) albino rats. These 24 rats were further randomly subdivided into 4 Groups of 6 albino rats each (3 males & 3 females). Group 1(Control) received normal saline (vehicle). Rest 18 rats of each phase were experimental rats, of Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 (6 rats each). Group 2, group 3 and group 4 experimental rats received 10mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40mg/kg of intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine respectively. All rats were weighed on each day for growth monitoring. Data was subjected to statistical analysis (Mean, standard deviation and Student’s t-Test). Results: All experimental group rats which received fluoxetine showed decrease of body weight. Rats which received high doses of fluoxetine could not tolerate the drug for more than two weeks and died due to excessive body weight loss, loose stools and muscle twitching. Conclusion: Present study conclude that SSRIs can cause weight change in the form of decrease of body weight. This property of SSRIs can be used clinically by prescribing these drugs to obese psychiatric patient without any fear of withdrawal of drug. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

Kandpal S.D.,HIMS | Srivastava A.K.,HIMS | Negi K.S.,HIMS
Indian Journal of Community Health | Year: 2012

Background: Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk is very important due to its special nutritive value and important role for human and animal health. Adulteration is practised either to substitute cheaper ingredients or to impress the buyer to think the product is more valuable or of better quality. Methods: The present study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at HIHT, Dehradun. All the samples of the raw milk (open and branded) supplied by the vendors in 5 Km radius of HIHT. The samples of milk were also collected from the Girls and Boys Hostel Mess and canteen. 500ml of each variety of open milk and 500 ml packet of branded milk were purchased from the milk vendors. The specific gravity of the milk was assessed by lactometer and chemically tested by Adulteration Test Kit supplied by NICE Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (an ISO 9001 Certified Company). Results: It was observed that out of 60 samples of milk, only 12 samples (20 %) had specific gravity of 26 and more which is considered as undiluted milk while 48 (80%) had specific gravity of less than 26 clearly indicating the dilution of milk with water. It was also observed that all the milk samples including double toned milk collected from different places showed presence of urea and detergents as common adulterants. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlights the need to implement improved hygiene practices and to apply effective monitoring throughout the production to delivery chain. Training and education is also needed for all persons who deal with milk production, marketing and processing.

PubMed | HIMS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pharmacology | Year: 2016

Medical students as future doctors will play an important role in caring for HIV-infected patients. This study assessed and evaluated the existing level of knowledge of MBBS students about HIV/AIDS given through lecture delivery methods and by use of concept map (CM).This study was carried out on 150 professional MBBS students of tertiary care hospital. A pretest was conducted by giving 10 multiple choice questions (MCQ) of general awareness and 15 questions regarding pharmacotherapy of HIV/AIDS. In between pre- and post-test, a session of 1-week integrated teaching module was organized. After completion of integrated teaching, 2 h session of CM on general awareness and pharmacotherapy of HIV/AIDS was taken. A posttest was conducted using MCQs and problem-based question (PBQ) to assess the effect of integrated teaching and CM on their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Feedback was also taken from the students to regarding their views about CM.There was a significant increase in students score in MCQ test after integrated teaching than pretest (CM can make a significant improvement in the knowledge of medical students and were motivated and developed interest in the subject.

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