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von Gadow K.,University of Gottingen | von Gadow K.,Stellenbosch University | Zhao X.H.,Beijing Forestry University | Tewari V.P.,Himalayan Forest Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2016

With Ernst Assmann’s appointment to the chair of Forest Yield Science in Munich in 1951, he assumed responsibility for the maintenance of the extensive network of growth-and-yield plots of the Bavarian Forest Research Institute. This network, with some plots having been remeasured since 1870, proved to be a rich source of observations, and constituted the empirical basis for Assmann’s fundamental theories in production ecology. Realizing the strategic value of long-term field observations, scientists are using (a) designed experiments and (b) observational studies to study forest structure and dynamics. This contribution is an attempt to clarify fundamental differences, and to present examples, of these two approaches. We present recent developments regarding the installation of DesignedExperiments and show that rigorous experimental design, usually found in planted forests and based on very specific manipulations, that are normally not found in the natural environment is required to address a particular hypothesis that cannot be tested by merely using available observations. We also present examples of new Forest Observational Networks established in China, India, Africa and America. These alternative research infrastructures are especially suitable for the study of natural forests that exhibit a high diversity of tree species with varying size and age structures. Our conclusion is that Forest Observational Studies are emerging as an important alternative to Designed Experiments because they provide a vast amount of information about complex natural forest communities rather quickly. However, long-term commitment is essential to ensure a steady flow of observations about forest dynamics. Manipulated experiments and observational studies can be complementary, but the optimum use of both installations requires careful planning and coordination. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Negi P.S.,Himalayan Forest Research Institute | Subramani S.P.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2015

In view of changing food habits of local communities of Himachal Himalaya, a study to document the genetic resources of wild edible plant and traditional recipes was conducted in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local people of Kinnaur plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. A total of 116 plant species belonging to 42 families were recorded from the study area. Among the four major life forms, herbs contributed the highest proportion of the edible species (57) followed by trees (32), shrubs (26) and climber (1). Fruits (50) are the highly consumed plant parts, followed by leaves (33), seeds (23), bulbs (6), resin/gum (6), roots (5), flowers (4), shoots (4), bark (2) and tubers (2) respectively. Chilgoza nut is the dominant wild edible and also the main source of revenue. This includes 13 threatened species under different Red List categories of IUCN 2000 and 8 species are endemic to Western Himalayas. Allium stracheyi, Angelica glauca, Betula utilis, Bunium persicum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Hippophae spp., Juglans regia, Pinus gerardiana, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus mira and Sinopodophyllum hexandrum are highly exploited species in wild and need to be conserved. Source

Kumar P.,Jaypee University of Information Technology | Jaiswal V.,Himachal Pradesh University | Pal T.,Jaypee University of Information Technology | Singh J.,Himalayan Forest Research Institute | Chauhan R.S.,Jaypee University of Information Technology
Protoplasma | Year: 2016

Podophyllum species (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle and Podophyllum peltatum) are a major source of deriving anticancer drugs from their major chemical constituent, podophyllotoxin. However, information lacks on regulatory components of podophyllotoxin biosynthesis; therefore, different classes of transcription factors were identified through mining transcriptomes of Podophyllum species and validated through qRT-PCR analysis vis-à-vis podophyllotoxin contents in different tissues/organs of Podophyllum hexandrum. A total of 82, 278, 70, and 90 transcripts were identified in shoots and 89, 273, 72, and 91 transcripts in rhizomes of P. hexandrum transcriptome; 70, 268, 48, and 92 transcripts were in shoots and 58, 245, 41, and 85 transcripts in rhizomes of P. peltatum transcriptome corresponding to bZIP, MYB, WRKY, and bHLH families of transcription factors, which have been shown in regulating biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Two unique transcripts encoding bHLH and MYB/SANT TFs in shoots of P. peltatum (medp_podpe_41091 and medp_podpe_2547) and bZIP and MYB TFs in rhizomes of P. hexandrum (medp_podhe_163581 and medp_podhe_147614) correlated with podophyllotoxin content. Quantification of podophyllotoxin and comparative expression analysis between high (2.51 %) versus low (0.59) podophyllotoxin content accessions revealed 0.04 to ~16-folds increase in transcripts of transcription factors, thereby further supporting the association of identified transcription factors with podophyllotoxin content. bZIP TF showed the highest transcript abundance (19.60-folds) in P. hexandrum rhizomes (2.51 % podophyllotoxin) compared to shoots (0.01 %). In silico analysis of putative promoter regions of pathway genes in other plant species revealed the presence of sequence elements for MYB and WRKY transcription factors, thereby suggesting their role in controlling the production of podophyllotoxin. A repertoire of additional transcription factors has been provided, which can be functionally validated and used in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of podophyllotoxin. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien Source

Ginwal H.S.,Forest Research Institute | Chauhan P.,Forest Research Institute | Barthwal S.,Forest Research Institute | Sharma A.,Forest Research Institute | Sharma R.,Himalayan Forest Research Institute
Silvae Genetica | Year: 2011

The study reports the transferability of chloroplast microsatellite markers developed for Pinus species to Cedrus deodara. A total of 49 primer pairs (both nuclear and chloroplast) of Pinus species were tested in C. deodara out of which 21 chloroplast primers showed positive amplification and 20 were found polymorphic. The primers were screened on 100 adult trees of two natural populations of C. deodara. Using twenty cpSSR primers, a total of 64 variants were found which combined in 70 different haplotypes. The total haplotype diversity in two populations was 0.860 and 0.876 with a mean of 0.868. These sets of markers can further be used for population genetic studies and characterization in C. deodara for which no cpSSR markers have been reported till date. Source

Sharma B.,Himalayan Forest Research Institute
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues | Year: 2016

The study is a comprehensive research on how do the various climatic parameters affect the social and economic status of farmers. The study is based on the stratified random sampling technique. The effects of change of the climatic factors are studied on the fruit crops, vegetable crops and agricultural crops along with the effect on livestock. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not, climate has had a detrimental effect on the choice of crop, usage of pesticides, and various adaptation techniques followed by the farmers. There has been a reduction in the quantity of trees, grasses and crop residue available as fodder. The yield of fruit trees has been hampered in the last 20 years. The agricultural crops have also witnessed the effect of climate change. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

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