News Article | June 4, 2009
When Fritz Müller and Erwin Schneider battled ice storms, altitude sickness and snow blindness in the 1950s to map, measure and photograph the Imja glacier in the Himalayas, they could never have foreseen that the gigantic tongue of millennia-old glacial ice would be reduced to a lake within 50 years. But half a century later, American mountain geographer Alton Byers returned to the precise locations of the original pictures and replicated 40 panoramas taken by explorers Müller and Schneider. Placed together, the juxtaposed images are not only visually stunning but also of significant scientific value. The photos have now been united for the first time in an exhibition organised by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (Icimod) and are printed here for the first time in Britain. The Himalaya – Changing Landscapes exhibition opened in Bonn this week as delegates gathered ifor the next round of UN talks aimed at delivering a global deal on tackling global warming. The series of pictures tell a story not only about the dramatic reductions in glacial ice in the Himalayas, but also the effects of climate change on the people who live there. "Only five decades have passed between the old and the new photographs and the changes are dramatic," says Byers. "Many small glaciers at low altitudes have disappeared entirely and many larger ones have lost around half of their volume. Some have formed huge glacial lakes at the foot of the glacier, threatening downstream communities in case of an outburst." His scientific results were published in the Himalayan Journal of Sciences and he is now in the Cordillera Blanca mountains in Peru where he will replicate Schneider's 1930 photos of glaciers. "Much remains uncertain about the melting of glaciers and future water supplies," he said. "But what is certain is that by promoting the conservation and restoration of mountain watersheds we can counter many of the impacts of warming trends, by creating cooler environments, saving biodiversity and protecting water supplies." The effects of climate change are dramatically illustrated at the world's "third pole", so-called because the mountain range locks away the highest volume of frozen water after the north and south poles. The 1956 photograph of the Imja glacier, then one of the largest glaciers at an altitude of around 5,000m, shows a layer of thick ice with small meltwater ponds. But by the time Byers took his shot in 2007, much of the glacier had melted into a vast but stunning blue lake. Today, the Imja glacier, which is just 6km from Everest, continues to recede at a rate of 74m a year - the fastest rate of all the Himayalan glaciers. Nepal's average temperature has increased by 1.5C since 1975 . A major UN Environment Programme report last year warned that at current rates of global warming, the Himalayan glaciers could shrink from 500,000 square kilometres to 100,000 square kilometres by the 2030s - a prediction supported by the rate of retreat seen in Byers' pictures. Imja is one of 27 glacial lakes in Nepal classified as potentially dangerous. If the moraines which dam the lake are breached, thousands of lives in the most densely populated Sherpa valley in Nepal are at risk from flooding and landslides. Himalayan glaciers also feed into major Asian river systems including the Ganges, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze. If glacial meltwaters turn to a trickle, widespread droughts will threaten the 1.3 billion people that depend on water flowing in those rivers . Andreas Schild, the director general of Icimod, said the photographs reveal just "the tip of the iceberg". "Scientific evidence shows that the effects of globalisation and climate change are being felt in even the most remote Himalayan environments," he said. "While climate change is mostly caused by the highly industrialised parts of the world, the effects are taking their toll in the sensitive mountain areas. The signs are visible, but the in-depth knowledge and data from the Himalayan region is largely missing. What happens in this remote mountain region is a serious concern for the whole world."
News Article | April 26, 2017
Scientists have shown how earthquakes and storms in the Himalaya can increase the impact of deadly floods in one of Earth's most densely populated areas.
News Article | April 26, 2017
Numerical models of foreland basin stratigraphy and modern river systems suggest that the location where river-bed sediment texture changes from gravel- to sand-dominated (the gravel–sand transition) is determined by: (1) basin subsidence rate; (2) total sediment flux; (3) gravel-size fraction; and (4) river discharge, over sub-millennial timescales9, 10, 11, 12, 13. However, few field data have previously been available to validate such models. The gravel–sand transition is marked by an abrupt decrease in grain size14, 15, 16, believed to result from an exhaustion of gravel supply. The gravel–sand transition in large trans-Himalayan rivers feeding the Ganga Plain occurs about 12–20 km downstream of the mountain front in the east Ganga Plain, and slightly further (about 28–45 km) downstream in the west Ganga Plain (Fig. 1); this transition is also associated with a marked decrease in channel gradient17. We find that the gravel–sand transition in rivers draining small foothill-fed catchments (<350 km2) in the east Ganga Plain16 is at a comparable distance downstream of the mountain front to that in the adjacent trans-Himalayan Gandak and Kosi rivers (>30,000 km2) (Fig. 1). While spatial variations in basin subsidence across the entire foreland basin may control the overall position of the gravel–sand transition9, 17, subsidence can be ruled out as a factor explaining this observation, because there is no evidence for a large variation in subsidence rate beneath the foothill-fed tributaries flowing in the interfan region between the Gandak and Kosi alluvial fans17. Given the substantial contrast in size between the trans-Himalayan Gandak and Kosi rivers and the smaller foothill-fed catchments, we would expect orders-of-magnitude differences in water and total sediment flux, which is at odds with the similarity in the positions of the gravel–sand transition. These fluxes are therefore also unlikely to have an important role in controlling the position of this transition. Gravel fining rates between the mountain front and the gravel–sand transition in the east Ganga Plain are also independent of the relatively rapid reduction in grain size observed across the gravel–sand transition16, 17. This further indicates that neither abrasion downstream of the mountain front nor input grain size exert a dominant control on the distance to the transition in the Ganga Plain. Theory and experiments have implied that an increase in the fraction of gravel in the sediment supplied to the basin results in the downstream migration of the gravel front9. Having ruled out other likely controls, we further test whether the position of the gravel–sand transition across the east Ganga Plain reflects differences (or similarities) in gravel flux. We first compare the total mass flux of sediment exported into the Ganga Plain to the mass trapped upstream of the gravel–sand transition. The volume of gravel between the mountain front and the mapped gravel–sand transitions17 is calculated using the mean basin subsidence rate (which is believed to have been relatively constant over the past 10,000 years17), the distance to the gravel–sand transition, and the maximum width of the alluvial fan (see Methods). We assume that most gravel is trapped upstream of the gravel–sand transition, an assumption supported by the conspicuous lack of gravel downstream of the transition. The use of the basin subsidence rate assumes the degree of filling of the basin (defined by a depositional base level) during that interval is constant (see Extended Data Table 1). The gravel-to-total-load ratio was also calculated for each catchment. Total sediment flux data are only available for the trans-Himalayan rivers considered in this study18, so to approximate total sediment flux from the smaller foothill catchments (Churre, Bakeya, Lakhandei, Ratu and Aurhi), we have used 10Be-derived catchment-averaged erosion rates from similar sized catchments further west in the Garhwal Himalaya19 (see Methods). We find that absolute gravel fluxes are lower across the foothill catchments, with values typically ranging between 0.05 megatonnes (Mt) of gravel per year and 0.72 Mt yr−1, compared to values of 0.51–3.29 Mt yr−1 in the trans-Himalayan catchments, but the differences are much smaller than what would be expected from catchments with contributing areas spanning three orders of magnitude (Fig. 2a). These absolute flux values should be treated as maxima, however, because we assume that that the full surface of the fan is available to receive sediment (see Methods). Our gravel proportion (or gravel-to-total-load ratio) estimates for the large trans-Himalayan systems vary between 0.2% and 29%, with proportions generally lowest for the Gandak and Kosi rivers in the east Ganga Plain (Fig. 2b). For average and maximum sediment flux scenarios (using average and maximum erosion rates), gravel proportions are systematically lower than estimates based on a similar abrasion model to predict gravel proportion for major Himalayan rivers at the mountain front20. For the smaller foothill catchments, gravel proportions are notably higher, even under the maximum flux scenario with catchment-averaged erosion rates of 5 mm yr−1 (Fig. 2b); for the gravel proportion to be lower than 50%, larger total sediment fluxes would be required, suggesting catchment-averaged erosion rates in excess of about 2.75 mm yr−1. Identification of the provenance of gravel is facilitated by the fact that the Himalayan mountain range is divided into four major structural units that run broadly parallel from west to east and are composed of contrasting lithological units (Fig. 1). These units are, from north to south: the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence, the Greater Himalayan metamorphic unit, the Lesser Himalayan Sequence and the Siwalik Group21 (see Methods). The Main Frontal Thrust is the most southerly tectonic structure, situated between the Siwalik Group and the foreland basin, and absorbs approximately 80% of the approximately 21 ± 1.5 mm yr−1 convergence between India and south Tibet22. During the low-flow season (October–May), a considerable portion of the channel bed of major rivers of the Ganga Basin is accessible, with extensive coarse gravel bars dominating the bed of the rivers as they cross the mountain front. To assess gravel provenance, pebble lithology was identified at a number of sites from about 30–50 km upstream of the mountain front down to the gravel–sand transition in each of the trans-Himalayan rivers (Fig. 1). Using a 25-m tape measure, pebble lithology was identified at 50-cm intervals along two transects at each site and categorized as outlined in Methods. Clast characterization shows that gravel which could be identified as uniquely from the Tethyan Himalayan sedimentary lithologies was absent from all our sites (see Methods), despite this unit representing 10%–20% of the total catchment geology (Fig. 3a and Extended Data Fig. 1). Quartzites are considered separately because they are distributed within each of the contributing units but cannot be traced back to any specific one. Quartzites represent a small fraction of the rocks exposed in the catchments20, typically less than 10%, yet they constitute the majority of the pebbles sampled (about 40%–70%), consistent with observations along the Marsyandi River20. Lesser Himalayan metamorphic lithologies comprised around 5%–40% of sampled pebbles (Fig. 3b). In general, where Lesser Himalayan lithologies covered a larger proportion of the total catchment area (such as for the Yamuna River), a higher proportion of Lesser Himalayan lithologies was found in the sampled pebbles (Fig. 3b). Greater Himalayan lithologies (igneous and medium- to high-grade metamorphic) comprised a further 5%–40% of the sampled pebbles, with the greatest proportions found further east along the Gandak and Kosi rivers, where the Greater Himalayan source rocks extend further south. Sedimentary Siwalik lithologies made up a relatively small fraction (<10%) of the sampled pebbles. For our numerical model experiments, we used three pebble erodibility coefficients typical of the Himalayan lithologies23 to assess the likelihood of gravel supplied from different parts of the catchments surviving as gravel after transportation to the mountain front. Using published percentage mass loss per travelled distance values23, we explored model scenarios on the Kosi and Bakeya catchments to define how pebble erodibility influences the proportion of the catchment area contributing gravel to the Ganga Plain as a function of catchment size23, 24 (see Methods). Modelling results show that for weak lithologies with high erodibility values (λ) such as schist and poorly cemented sandstones23, only locally sourced gravel is likely to survive at the mountain outlet (Fig. 4). After a transport distance of about 20 km, most gravel with high erodibility (λ = 20% km−1) is abraded and converted into sand and finer products23; therefore, most of the easily erodible gravel supplied to the river at a distance greater than around 20 km upstream of the mountain front is unlikely to contribute to the gravel load, and is probably transported as washload or suspended load. Gravel with erodibility values of around 2% km−1, representative of most Himalayan lithologies such as gneiss, granite, limestone and well cemented sandstone, can survive transport lengths of approximately 100–200 km. Clasts of these lithologies would probably constitute a greater proportion of gravel material at the outlet; this, however, is a conservative estimate, given that chemical weathering on hillslopes and during temporary storage may weaken pebbles25. Under the lowest erodibility values (λ = 0.2% km−1; for example, quartzite23), a large proportion of the gravel supplied to the rivers is likely to survive to the mountain front (Fig. 4). Modelling of the abrasion of gravel as it is transported downstream suggests that beyond a critical fluvial transport length upstream of the mountain front, gravel delivered to the fluvial network reaches the Ganga Plain mainly as sand and finer sediment18, 23, 24 (Fig. 4). This is consistent with Sr–Nd isotopic mass balances of suspended sediment in the Ganga Basin suggesting that 80% ± 10% of suspended sediment delivered to the Ganga Plain is of Greater Himalayan source, while only 20% ± 10% is sourced from the Lesser Himalaya26. The critical fluvial transport length is dependent on pebble erodibility, which is a function of lithology, and was estimated to be about 250/λ (ref. 23). For trans-Himalayan catchments, intermediate- and low-strength lithologies of the Lesser and Greater Himalayas sourced within around 100 km upstream of the mountain front will contribute a substantial fraction of the gravel exported and deposited upstream of the gravel–sand transition23. Similar lithologies sourced further upstream will be abraded into sand before reaching the outlet, which is supported by the lack of pebbles distinctively sourced from the Tethyan Himalaya and relatively low proportions of Greater Himalayan pebbles in the Ganga Plain (Fig. 3). Where Greater Himalayan rocks are exposed further south in these catchments, a larger proportion of Greater Himalayan pebbles reach the Ganga Plain as a result of shorter transport distances and generally lower percentage mass loss of Greater Himalaya lithologies (such as gneiss and granite) via abrasion, compared to the sedimentary and low-grade metamorphics from the other contributing units20, 23. More resistant quartzite lithologies, however, are sourced from all parts of the Himalaya20. Even in catchments as large as the Kosi, more than 50% of quartzitic pebbles sourced from the catchment headwaters are likely to reach the mountain outlet as gravel, because the characteristic transport length for quartzite (>1,000 km; ref. 23) is longer than the river network (Fig. 4). We would therefore expect quartzite to dominate the lithologies of pebbles exported into the Ganga Plain, which is consistent with our observations (Fig. 3b) and with previous modelling predicitions23, 24. The smaller foothill catchments are draining the Neogene Siwalik sediments (consisting of previously deposited Ganga Plain sediments), which are progressively incorporated back into the mountain range through frontal accretion of thrust units16. Therefore, the rivers are expected to recycle almost exclusively quartzitic gravel, which is confirmed by field observations. The low degree of cementation of the young Neogene sediment was also noted in the field, which probably explains the high catchment-averaged erosion rates. These observations explain why a very high proportion of the gravel delivered to the foothill channels survive into the Ganga Plain, and hence, why high gravel fluxes per unit catchment area are observed for these smaller systems (Fig. 2a). Our models and data demonstrate that increased sediment delivery to channels will result in an additional pulse of gravel reaching the Ganga Plain only if sediment delivery occurs within less than about 100 km upstream of the mountain front or is sourced in highly resistant lithologies (for example, quartzite). Increased gravel supply to rivers in the Siwalik Hills (proximal and quartzite-dominated), such as might be expected from landsliding following seismicity on the Main Frontal Thrust, will probably result in a pulse of gravel and aggradation in river channels of the proximal Ganga Plain. Conversely, widespread landsliding in the Greater Himalaya8 initiated by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake (>200 km upstream of the mountain outlets) should result in elevated sand flux but is less likely to drive increased gravel flux to the Ganga Plain and thus leave a trace in the gravel stratigraphy of the foreland basin (see Extended Data Fig. 3). Our results also suggest that over the length scale of trans-Himalayan rivers, abrasion facilitates the downstream translation and dispersion of earthquake-generated sediment27 through the transformation of gravel to more mobile sand. The 1950 Assam earthquake reportedly dislodged 47 billion cubic metres of landslide material28, resulting in long-term channel aggradation and a morphological change in tributaries of the Brahmaputra River29, although the relative effects of increased gravel and sand delivery out of the mountain front were not explored. Rivers in the Ganga Plain are expected to respond differently to elevated sand or gravel input; our findings suggest that future research should aim to understand these responses better.
News Article | April 26, 2017
Scientists have shown how earthquakes and storms in the Himalaya can increase the impact of deadly floods in one of Earth's most densely populated areas. Large volumes of hard rock dumped into rivers by landslides can increase flood risk up to hundreds of kilometres downstream, potentially affecting millions of people, researchers say. The findings could help researchers improve flood risk maps for the Ganga Plain, a low-lying region covering parts of India, Nepal and Pakistan. They could also provide fresh insight into the long-term impacts of earthquakes and storms in the region. Until now, little was known about how landslides in the Himalaya could affect flood risk downstream on the Ganga Plain. For the first time, scientists at the University of Edinburgh have traced the path of rocks washed down from the Himalayan mountains onto the Plain. They found that large landslides in the southern, lower elevation ranges of the Himalaya are more likely to increase flood risk than those in the high mountains further north. Rocks in the south are extremely hard and travel only a short distance -- less than 20 km -- to reach the Plain. This means much of this rock -- such as quartzite -- reaches the Plain as gravel or pebbles, which can build up in rivers, altering the natural path of the water, the team says. Rocks from more northerly regions of the Himalaya tend to be softer, and the team found they often travel at least 100 km to reach the Plain. These types of rock -- including limestone and gneiss - are gradually broken down into sand which, unlike gravel and pebbles, is dispersed widely as it travels downstream. Understanding whether landslides will produce vast quantities of gravel or sand is crucial for predicting how rivers on the Ganga Plain will be affected, researchers say. The study is published in the journal Nature. The research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Elizabeth Dingle, PhD student in the University of Edinburgh's School of GeoSciences, who led the study, said: "Our findings help to explain how events in the Himalaya can have drastic effects on rivers downstream and on the people who live there. Knowing where landslides take place in the mountains could help us better predict whether or not large deposits of gravel will reach the Ganga Plain and increase flood risk."
News Article | April 27, 2017
Scientists have shown how earthquakes and storms in the Himalayas can increase the impact of deadly floods in one of Earth's most densely populated areas. Large volumes of hard rock dumped into rivers by landslides can increase flood risk up to hundreds of kilometers downstream, potentially affecting millions of people, researchers say. The findings could help researchers improve flood risk maps for the Ganga Plain, a low-lying region covering parts of India, Nepal and Pakistan. They could also provide fresh insight into the long-term impacts of earthquakes and storms in the region. Until now, little was known about how landslides in the Himalayas could affect flood risk downstream on the Ganga Plain. For the first time, scientists at the University of Edinburgh have traced the path of rocks washed down from the Himalayan mountains onto the Plain. They found that large landslides in the southern, lower elevation ranges of the Himalayas are more likely to increase flood risk than those in the high mountains further north. Rocks in the south are extremely hard and travel only a short distance -- less than 20 km -- to reach the Plain. This means much of this rock -- such as quartzite -- reaches the Plain as gravel or pebbles, which can build up in rivers, altering the natural path of the water, the team says. Rocks from more northerly regions of the Himalayas tend to be softer, and the team found they often travel at least 100 km to reach the Plain. These types of rock -- including limestone and gneiss - are gradually broken down into sand which, unlike gravel and pebbles, is dispersed widely as it travels downstream. Understanding whether landslides will produce vast quantities of gravel or sand is crucial for predicting how rivers on the Ganga Plain will be affected, researchers say. The study is published in the journal Nature. The research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. "Our findings help to explain how events in the Himalaya can have drastic effects on rivers downstream and on the people who live there. Knowing where landslides take place in the mountains could help us better predict whether or not large deposits of gravel will reach the Ganga Plain and increase flood risk," said Elizabeth Dingle, PhD student in the University of Edinburgh's School of GeoSciences, who led the study
News Article | April 24, 2017
Global Dietary Supplements market is estimated to be $125.10 billion in 2015 with a CAGR of 7.14% is poised to reach $202.8 billion by 2022Pune , India - April 24, 2017 /MarketersMedia/ — Dietary Supplements Industry Description According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Dietary Supplements market is estimated to be $125.10 billion in 2015 with a CAGR of 7.14% is poised to reach $202.8 billion by 2022. Growing disposable incomes in developing countries, rising awareness towards consumption of proteins, rapidly growing awareness towards calorie drop & weight loss and increasing importance of e-commerce portals as a selling medium for nutraceutical manufacturers are some of the reasons behind the favorable market growth. Moreover, lack of peculiarity from conventional food categories is the critical challenge in this dietary supplements market. Sports nutrition segment is expected to grow at a faster growth rate during the forecast period due to increasing demand for energy drinks equipped with whey and egg protein between sports athletes and gym professionals. By geography, Asia Pacific witnessed largest market share in 2015 owing to rising disposal income and buyer spending towards nutritional enrichment. Some of the key players in this market include Himalaya Global Holdings Ltd., Stepan Co., Nutraceutics Inc., Ayanda A/S, Nature’s Sunshine Products, Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), Glanbia Nutritionals, Arkopharma Laboratoires Pharmaceutiques, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Abbott Laboratories, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Ekomir Pharma Ltd., Xango, LLC, Bionova Lifesciences (Pragati Biocare Pvt. Ltd.), Pfizer Inc. and Bayer AG. Request for Sample Report @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/674236-dietary-supplements-global-market-outlook-2016-2022 Supplements Ingredient Covered: • Vitamin Supplements • Fatty acid Supplements • Calcium Supplements • Mineral Supplements • Probiotic Supplements • Protein Supplements • Ginseng Supplements • Eye health Supplements • Combination Dietary Supplements Product Covered: • Gel Caps • Liquid • Capsules • Soft Gels • Powder • Tablets Leave a Query @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/enquiry/674236-dietary-supplements-global-market-outlook-2016-2022 Application Covered: • Sports Nutrition • Additional Supplements • Medicinal Supplement End User Covered: • Old-aged • Adults • Infant • Pregnant women • Children Regions Covered: • North America o US o Canada o Mexico • Europe o Germany o France o Italy o UK o Spain o Rest of Europe • Asia Pacific o Japan o China o India o Australia o New Zealand o Rest of Asia Pacific • Rest of the World o Middle East o Brazil o Argentina o South Africa o Egypt What our report offers: - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments - Market share analysis of the top industry players - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations) - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements Buy now @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/checkout?currency=one_user-USD&report_id=674236 Continued... Contact Us: Sales@Wiseguyreports.Com Ph: +1-646-845-9349 (US) Ph: +44 208 133 9349 (UK) Contact Info:Name: NORAH TRENTEmail: email@example.comOrganization: WISE GUY RESEARCH CONSULTANTS PVT LTDAddress: Office No. 528, Amanora Chambers Magarpatta Road, Hadapsar Pune - 411028Phone: +91 841 198 5042Source URL: http://marketersmedia.com/dietary-supplements-market-2017-global-analysis-opportunities-and-forecast-to-2022/189486For more information, please visit https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/674236-dietary-supplements-global-market-outlook-2016-2022Source: MarketersMediaRelease ID: 189486
News Article | April 25, 2017
Sarasota, FL, April 25, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Zion Market Research, the market research group announced the analysis report titled "Dietary Supplements Market by Ingredients (Botanicals, Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Enzymes) for Additional Supplements, Medicinal Supplements and Sports Nutrition Applications - Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2016 – 2022". The study concludes that the global dietary supplements market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.8% between 2017 and 2022. The market revenue of $132.8 billion in 2016 is expected to grow up to $220.3 billion by 2022. human body function smoothly and enhance mental health. Botanical or herbal supplements are dietary supplements that are used for medicinal purpose. Botanical dietary supplements usually support a particular area of the body’s health, such as the skin, liver, and bone. Browse through 29 Market Tables and 35 Figures spread through 110 Pages and in-depth TOC on “Global Dietary Supplements Market: By Type, Application, Size, Share, Trends, Analysis, Segment and Forecast 2016 – 2022”. The global dietary supplements market is primarily driven by increased consumer awareness for preventative healthcare along with aging population. Growing influence of media development in the pharmaceutical and retail industries and rapid advancements in dietary supplement product are some of the factors impacting the dietary supplement market growth. However, negative publicity and fake product claims are expected to hamper the overall growth of the market in the forecast period. Moreover, lack of awareness about consumption dosage of the dietary supplements may hinder the market growth. Browse the full "Dietary Supplements Market by Ingredients (Botanicals, Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Enzymes) for Additional Supplements, Medicinal Supplements, and Sports Nutrition Applications - Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2016 – 2022" report at https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/report/dietary-supplements-market On the basis of application, the global dietary supplements market is classified into an additional supplement, medicinal supplement, sports nutrition applications. Among all segments, additional supplements the largest application segment of dietary supplements market in 2016. Sports nutrition segment is also expected to be one of the fastest growing segments dietary supplements market owing to increasing number of health clubs and fitness centers. By ingredient type dietary supplements is divided into botanicals, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes. Vitamin supplement was used extensively and accounting for around 42% of global market share in 2016. Geographically, Asia-Pacific was the largest market for dietary supplements in 2016. It accounted for more than 31% share of the total volume of dietary supplements market. Furthermore, this trend is anticipated to continue in coming years. The market growth in the Asia-Pacific has mainly attributed consumer awareness about the benefits of dietary supplements and wide product availability in the region. Asia Pacific was followed by North America and Europe in 2016. North America and Europe are estimated to have moderate growth for dietary supplements in near future. North America accounted for around 28% of the total market in 2016 and is projected to witness growth owing to increasing consumption of products with reduced calorie level and high nutritional content. Furthermore, Latin America, Middle East, and Africa are projected to witness the decent growth for dietary supplements market owing to the consumer awareness regarding dietary supplements benefits to health. Inquire more about this report before purchase @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/inquiry/dietary-supplements-market Some of the key manufacturers of global dietary supplements market include Amway, Integrated BioPharma, Inc., NBTY, Inc., Herbalife Ltd., Omega Protein Corporation, Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc., Bayer AG, Naturalife Asia Co., Ltd., Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc., Blackmores Ltd., BASF SE, Epax AS, Surya Herbal Ltd., Koninklijke DSM N.V., Bio-Botanica Inc., The Himalaya Drug Company, Ricola AG, Pharmavite LLC, Blackmores Ltd., and Axellus AS among others. This report segments the dietary supplements market as follows: Zion Market Research is an obligated company. We create futuristic, cutting edge, informative reports ranging from industry reports, company reports to country reports. We provide our clients not only with market statistics unveiled by avowed private publishers and public organizations but also with vogue and newest industry reports along with pre-eminent and niche company profiles. Our database of market research reports comprises a wide variety of reports from cardinal industries. Our database is been updated constantly in order to fulfill our clients with prompt and direct online access to our database. Keeping in mind the client’s needs, we have included expert insights on global industries, products, and market trends in this database. Last but not the least, we make it our duty to ensure the success of clients connected to us—after all—if you do well, a little of the light shines on us.
News Article | April 24, 2017
SAN RAMON, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) announced that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Chevron Global Ventures, Ltd., has entered into an agreement to sell the shares of its wholly-owned indirect subsidiaries operating in Bangladesh to Himalaya Energy Co. Ltd. Chevron Bangladesh operates Block 12 (Bibiyana Field) and Blocks 13 and 14 (Jalalabad and Moulavi Bazar fields). Closing of the transaction is subject to the satisfaction of certain closing conditions. Chevron Corporation is one of the world’s leading integrated energy companies. Through its subsidiaries that conduct business worldwide, the company is involved in virtually every facet of the energy industry. Chevron explores for, produces and transports crude oil and natural gas; refines, markets and distributes transportation fuels and lubricants; manufactures and sells petrochemicals and additives; generates power; and develops and deploys technologies that enhance business value in every aspect of the company’s operations. Chevron is based in San Ramon, Calif. More information about Chevron is available at www.chevron.com. CAUTIONARY STATEMENT RELEVANT TO FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF “SAFE HARBOR” PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995 This press release contains forward-looking statements relating to Chevron’s operations that are based on management’s current expectations, estimates and projections about the petroleum, chemicals and other energy-related industries. 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Unless legally required, Chevron undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Among the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements are: changing crude oil and natural gas prices; changing refining, marketing and chemicals margins; the company’s ability to realize anticipated cost savings and expenditure reductions; actions of competitors or regulators; timing of exploration expenses; timing of crude oil liftings; the competitiveness of alternate-energy sources or product substitutes; technological developments; the results of operations and financial condition of the company’s suppliers, vendors, partners and equity affiliates, particularly during extended periods of low prices for crude oil and natural gas; the inability or failure of the company’s joint-venture partners to fund their share of operations and development activities; the potential failure to achieve expected net production from existing and future crude oil and natural gas development projects; potential delays in the development, construction or start-up of planned projects; the potential disruption or interruption of the company’s operations due to war, accidents, political events, civil unrest, severe weather, cyber threats and terrorist acts, crude oil production quotas or other actions that might be imposed by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or other natural or human causes beyond its control; changing economic, regulatory and political environments in the various countries in which the company operates; general domestic and international economic and political conditions; the potential liability for remedial actions or assessments under existing or future environmental regulations and litigation; significant operational, investment or product changes required by existing or future environmental statutes and regulations, including international agreements and national or regional legislation and regulatory measures to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions; the potential liability resulting from other pending or future litigation; the company’s future acquisition or disposition of assets or shares or the delay or failure of such transactions to close based on required closing conditions; the potential for gains and losses from asset dispositions or impairments; government-mandated sales, divestitures, recapitalizations, industry-specific taxes, changes in fiscal terms or restrictions on scope of company operations; foreign currency movements compared with the U.S. dollar; material reductions in corporate liquidity and access to debt markets; the effects of changed accounting rules under generally accepted accounting principles promulgated by rule-setting bodies; the company’s ability to identify and mitigate the risks and hazards inherent in operating in the global energy industry; and the factors set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” on pages 20 through 22 of Chevron’s 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Other unpredictable or unknown factors not discussed in this press release could also have material adverse effects on forward-looking statements.
News Article | May 3, 2017
Smog from cars and trucks is an expected health hazard in big cities, but researchers from the University of Cincinnati found pollution from truck exhaust on one of the most remote mountain roads in the world. Brooke Crowley, an assistant professor of geology and anthropology, and UC graduate student Rajarshi Dasgupta examined soil pollution along India’s Manali-Leh Highway in the Himalaya Mountains. This tortuous 300-mile route, much of it gravel or dirt, winds its way over one of the highest navigable mountain passes in the world at 17,480 feet. That’s 4,000 feet higher in elevation than the top of Wyoming’s Grand Teton. The road’s very remoteness has made it an international tourist attraction, drawing cyclists and adventurers keen on treading where so few have. Even here in one of the most distant corners of the planet, a place of desolate valleys and austere beauty, the researchers in UC’s McMicken College of Arts and Sciences found evidence of pollution from diesel exhaust. “We measured incredibly high amounts of sulfur close to the highway. Some of those values are the highest ever reported in the literature and were likely connected to truck traffic,” Crowley said. The results were published in the journal Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. The research was funded through grants by the UC Research Council, Sigma Xi and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities. For the study, Dasgupta took soil samples at four places along the highway and at six prescribed distances, starting with samples literally on the dirt road and extending out 150 meters. Soil samples were collected at 3, 9 and 15 centimeters in depth. Dasgupta said villagers in this area burn wood and cow dung for cooking and heating their homes. The resulting smoke often contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a known carcinogen. They tested the soil for these hydrocarbons along with sulfur, total organic compound and 10 types of heavy metal. This wide net was necessary to capture the myriad potential pollutants caused by truck traffic, Dasgupta said. The study found low levels of heavy metals and no relationship between their concentrations and distance from the highway. But they found high concentrations of sulfur, a major pollutant in the exhaust of diesel-powered engines. “This area provided us with a rare opportunity to examine the effects of multiple contaminants in a remote, diesel-dominated, mountainous environment,” Dasgupta said. Comparative studies have found that India’s diesel contains an especially high sulfur content, the UC researchers said. Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere contributes to acid rain. “At first glance, it’s easy to consider the region to be a pretty pristine place. But there are environmental impacts from humans,” Crowley said. Last year India ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change. The world’s second-largest nation by population produces nearly 5 percent of the world’s greenhouse gases. The agreement calls for participating countries to develop a plan to address temperature rise. India has a goal of producing 40 percent of its electricity with renewable energy by 2030. Diesel fuel is popular in India because it historically cost drivers less there than regular unleaded. Most of the buses and heavy trucks that traverse the Manali-Leh Highway burn diesel fuel. Completed in the 1970s, the road between Manali and Leh sees about 50,000 vehicles per year, mostly during the summer when the mountain passes are free of snow, according to government traffic counts. Himalaya means “abode of snow” in Sanskrit. UC researchers found the highest sulfur contents at the base of the narrow ridges that are most prone to rockslides. Trucks sometimes must wait to use a single lane while construction crews make repairs. “The road is terrible, and it’s almost always under construction. There can be lines of traffic idling waiting to go over the passes,” she said. “Our results suggest that a fair amount of emissions accumulate in the soil.” UC professor Lewis Owen, the geology department head, said Crowley’s findings are in keeping with other studies on pollution impacts in the region. “It’s not surprising at all if you’ve ever been to the Himalayas and seen all the diesel trucks that use the highways,” he said. Air pollution from Asian cities also ends up contaminating the remote region’s mountains and streams, he said. “There is no pristine environment left. You see black snow deposited on glaciers and snowfields in Tibet,” Owen said. “This study is adding to our data set about how we’re degrading the planet. Humans are the biggest geologic agents now. Some researchers are calling this geologic age ‘the Anthropocene’ after the human influence.” This study and others like it show the cumulative effect of fossil fuels on the environment, he said. “The biggest challenge is for the research to be disseminated to people who can do something about it,” he said. Dasgupta said countries can monitor pollution and its resulting health effects and invest in more renewable energy and other eco-friendly alternatives to reduce their carbon footprint. “There is no doubt that increasing economic development will put more stress on environments all over the world, remote or not,” Dasgupta said. UC’s Crowley has published studies on topics as diverse as plant defenses against species of now-extinct lemurs and the long-distance treks of extinct mammoths. The study marked Crowley’s second visit to the Himalaya region. But Crowley’s scientific interests have taken her around the world. She has made four trips to Madagascar to study lemurs and reconstruct the causes and consequences of extinctions on the island. She and her students have examined the effects of sea spray on vegetation in Trinidad and looked at ways the first humans in the Canary Islands changed its ecology. “I’m a paleoecologist. I’m interested in human-animal interactions. I haven’t conducted pollution research previously, and this study with Rajarshi has stretched me in a new direction,” she said. Dasgupta said the study proved to be a learning experience for him as well. “This study was the first of its kind for me, too,” Dasgupta said. “I am a geomorphologist. I study the evolution of the landforms around us. However, as a geographer, I have always been interested in the interactions of humans with the natural environment – the central theme of all geographic research. This study fits that theme perfectly.” In the Himalayas, the researchers found native wildlife such as ibex, herds of wild asses called kiang and condors, one of the largest birds on the planet. Adding to the bucolic scene, many of the villagers who live in the foothills tend goats. “It’s a beautiful landscape. The scale is hard to comprehend when you’re driving on a plain at 15,000 feet above sea level. That’s really high. It takes a while to acclimatize to the elevation,” Crowley said. The night skies were full of stars in that sparsely inhabited part of India, with little moisture in the atmosphere to obscure the view. The arid mountains have little vegetation and lots of exposed strata of rock. “It’s a geologist’s dream. UC professors in geology have been conducting research and teaching classes in this region for many years,” she said. “I am so grateful I was able to join them in the field.” But being in the field can be challenging. The researchers had to hire an experienced driver to take them over the mountains. They used a filtration system to provide clean drinking water. In some of the low-lying areas, they had to help push their truck out of the mud. “We’ve gotten a flat tire both times we’ve gone to India. You need nerves of steel to deal with the blind curves,” she said. Crowley said places on the extreme edges of habitability such as the Himalayas could be the first to feel the effects of dramatic climate change. These mountain ranges provide water and nutrients for rivers in India. “These are places that might have perennial glaciers that are important sources of water. If the glaciers disappear, that has major implications for people who rely on that water,” she said. The samples collected for this study provide baseline data if researchers decide to revisit the topic of roadside pollution in 10 or 20 years, she said. And given her track record of travel for UC, Crowley might be the one leading that expedition, too. “One of the joys of being a professor is you have some freedom in the kinds of research questions you can explore,” she said. “I have appreciated that opportunity here at UC.”
Himalaya | Date: 2012-11-21
Disclosed is a herbal solid formulation comprising Andrographis paniculata, Terminalia arjuna, Azadirachta indica, Trikatu (Zingiber officinalis, Piper longum, Piper nigrum), Tinospora cordifolia, Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Commiphora mukul or Allium sativum extracts essentially free of excipients and preservatives and process for preparing the same.