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Pāonta Sāhib, India

Talwar A.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Saxena S.,P.A. College | Kumar A.,Dehradun Institute of Technology
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2016

Present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients at various hospitals in Doon Valley, Uttrakhand. A total of 300 nasal swabs (male patients: 177, female patients: 123) were subjected to bacteriological investigation following established protocol. Isolates were verified by mannitol fermentation, Gram staining, DNAse test and coagulase positivity. S.aureus was isolated in 111 (37%) participants (M: 37%, F: 36.5%). Out of 111 S. aureus isolates, 38 (34.2%) were methicillin resistant (MRSA). Among them, 25 (38%) were male and 13 (29%) were from female. Highest MRSA colonization rate was found among dialysis ward patients (55.5%), followed by burn ward (32.5%) and general medical ward (22.7%) patients. The study also revealed that administration of recent antibiotic was chief predisposing factor for MRSA colonization. High MRSA carriage rate found in this study indicates demand for standard infection control to curb transmission. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India). Source

Chauhan S.,Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences | Farooq U.,Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences | Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Education
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security. The virtues of milk as a food have long been recognized by human beings. Milk is however a good medium for bacterial growth and an efficient vehicle for bacterial infection when consumed without boiling or pasteurization. The aim of the present study was to evaluvate the presence of ESBL producing Klebsiella species present in raw milk of Doon valley in India. The study was carried out from July 2007 to July 2008. A total of 100 samples of raw milk were collected from Doon valley. These samples were cultured and the isolated organisms were identified by standard bacteriological methods. A total of 27 samples were found to be positive for Klebsiella species. Further ESBL phenotypic screening was performed. All 27 isolates found ESBL producing. Isolated Klebsiella spp showed 96.29% susceptibility to imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin (62.96%), piperacillin/tazobactam combination (51.85%) and ciftazidime (18.51%). This study reveals that Klebsiella isolated from raw milk in Doon valley produce ESBL in large proportion. The imipenem antibiotic which was found highly sensitive to ESBL producing klebsiella isolates might be a drug of choice. Source

Devi A.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Bhatt A.B.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Streptococcus is the leading cause of dental diseases worldwide and is considered to be the most cariogenic of all of the oral bacteria. The total 150 dental plaque sample were collected from Uttranchal dental college and hospital dehradun and different dental clinics of dehradun. Out of 320 isolates recovered prevalence of Streptococcus sp. was 50%. 10 antibiotics were used against the recovered isolates. 80% of the recovered isolates revealed the sensitive activity against amoxicillin (25 mcg), ampicillin (25 mcg), chloramphenicol (30 mcg), erythromycin (30 mcg), clindamycin (30 mcg), tetracycline (30 mcg), penicillin (100 mcg) and resistant activity against metronidazole (30 mcg), ciprofloxacin (25 mcg), and gentamycin (25 mcg). The antibacterial activity of Punica granatum against the recovered isolates was studied by using agar well diffusion method. Out of four different solvents used in the present study 90 % of the recovered isolates showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the methanolic extract of Punica granatum i.e. 25 mm. Source

Sharma S.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Mall A.,Himachal Institute of Life science
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

In 1880, Staphylococcus aureus was first discovered by a surgeon named Sir Clifton Smithin pus from surgical abscesses in Aberdeen, Scotland. Methicillin, as the first beta-lactamase resistant penicillin, was used to treat S. aureus infection in 1961. The first methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified in the United Kingdom in the same year. It appeared in the United States in 1981 among intravenous drug users. MRSA is an important agent of hospital-acquired infection. Two hundred patients who were admitted in the Doon valley hospitals were screened for nasal colonization of MRSA. Morphological and biochemical identification was also done. Out of 200 nasal samples, 97 S. aureus were recovered. Crome agar was used in order to detect MRSA, only 23 S. aureus were recovered out of total 97 isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by using the disk diffusion technique on Mueller Hinton agar. A total of 12 antibiotics were used. Our study reveal the presence of MRSA in the Doon valley hospitals this might also be prevalent in other parts of India as antibiotic misuse is equally common there. This will help in treating this problem in referral hospitals. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Chauhan P.K.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of the acetone extract of Centella asiatica (Brahmi). Methods: Toxicity of Centella asiatica was evaluated in Swiss mice after ingestion of the extract during one day (acute model) and during 15 days (subacute model). The Biochemical parameters evaluated included creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assessed using commercial kits. Results: The results of the present investigation revealed that the LD50 of the extract is higher than 4000mg/kg and subacute treatment did not shows any change in corporal weight and hematological parameters. However, a change in liver weight but not in hepatic enzymes was observed. This suggested that the liver function is not altered by Centella asiatica. Some changes in the creatinine content were observed but could not be relative with the extract dose. Conclusions: The results suggest that the plant seems to be destitute of toxic effects in mice. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

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