Himachal Institute of Life science

Pāonta Sāhib, India

Himachal Institute of Life science

Pāonta Sāhib, India

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Talwar A.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Saxena S.,P.A. College | Kumar A.,Dehradun Institute of Technology
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2016

Present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients at various hospitals in Doon Valley, Uttrakhand. A total of 300 nasal swabs (male patients: 177, female patients: 123) were subjected to bacteriological investigation following established protocol. Isolates were verified by mannitol fermentation, Gram staining, DNAse test and coagulase positivity. S.aureus was isolated in 111 (37%) participants (M: 37%, F: 36.5%). Out of 111 S. aureus isolates, 38 (34.2%) were methicillin resistant (MRSA). Among them, 25 (38%) were male and 13 (29%) were from female. Highest MRSA colonization rate was found among dialysis ward patients (55.5%), followed by burn ward (32.5%) and general medical ward (22.7%) patients. The study also revealed that administration of recent antibiotic was chief predisposing factor for MRSA colonization. High MRSA carriage rate found in this study indicates demand for standard infection control to curb transmission. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Sharma S.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Mall A.,Himachal Institute of Life science
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

In 1880, Staphylococcus aureus was first discovered by a surgeon named Sir Clifton Smithin pus from surgical abscesses in Aberdeen, Scotland. Methicillin, as the first beta-lactamase resistant penicillin, was used to treat S. aureus infection in 1961. The first methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified in the United Kingdom in the same year. It appeared in the United States in 1981 among intravenous drug users. MRSA is an important agent of hospital-acquired infection. Two hundred patients who were admitted in the Doon valley hospitals were screened for nasal colonization of MRSA. Morphological and biochemical identification was also done. Out of 200 nasal samples, 97 S. aureus were recovered. Crome agar was used in order to detect MRSA, only 23 S. aureus were recovered out of total 97 isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by using the disk diffusion technique on Mueller Hinton agar. A total of 12 antibiotics were used. Our study reveal the presence of MRSA in the Doon valley hospitals this might also be prevalent in other parts of India as antibiotic misuse is equally common there. This will help in treating this problem in referral hospitals. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Singh V.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Kaushal S.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Tyagi A.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Sharma P.,Himachal Institute of Life science
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

A total of 280 isolates were recovered from 100 milk samples. The samples were collected from the various dairies in Paonta Sahib. The isolates were characterized and identified on the basis of morphological characterization such as Gram staining reactions, colony characteristics and Biochemical test based on the Morphological and Biochemical characterization. It was observed that milk sample have the prevalence of E.coli sp. (32.14%), Staphylococcus sp. (21.4%), Salmonella sp. (21.4%), Proteus sp. (17.8%) and Bacillus sp. (7.14%) respectively. The Amoxycillin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Ofloxacin, Ceftriaxome and Tetracycline were very sensitive to the Salmonella, Staphylococcus and Proteus. The Penicillin-G and Ampicillin were resistant to the E. coli and Proteus.

Ashok K.,Himachal Institute of Life Science | Bisht B.S.,Central University of Costa Rica | Manish K.,Himachal Institute of Pharmacy | Lalit K.,Himachal Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

Heavy metals and other pollutants in the environment damage to the plants. Heavy metals include lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), copper (Co) etc. A pollutant is any substance in the environment, which causes objectionable effects, impairing the welfare of the environment, reducing the quality of plant life and may eventually cause plant death. Such a substance has to be present in the environment beyond a set or tolerance limit, which could be either a desirable or acceptable limit. Hence, environmental pollution is the presence of a pollutant in the environment viz. air, water and soil, which may be poisonous or toxic and cause harm to plants in the polluted environment. Increases of metal content ions when present at an elevated level in the environment are absorbed by roots of the plants and translocated to different plant parts, leading to impaired metabolism and reduced growth and Ni and Zn considered as essential micronutrients, increased concentration poses toxicity on metabolic and cytological activity of the plants. In the present investigation, the three plant of Indian pulses Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Glycine max which is the major pulses for farmer and all, were taken and the effect of different grade of Ni and Zn observed for the growth in pulses. The plant of one week and one month were taken for the present study. It was observed that the Ni and Zn had reduced cytological activity in the growing plant contrasting to control plants. They, thus reduce the plant growth in excess.

Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Sharma L.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Kanta R.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Sharma S.,Himachal Institute of Life science | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

This study was carried out from 8 th Mar 2007 to 8 th Dec 2009. A total of 65 consecutive Proteus recovered during the study period in 360 milk samples of different area of Paonta valley, 40 isolates were ESBL producer and 25 isolates were non-ESBL producers. Detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Proteus in raw milk and milks products was carried out by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, on Muller Hinton Agar. A susceptibility disk containing Piperacillin\ Tazobactum was placed as the inhibitor of β-lactamase in the center of the plate, Piperacillin were placed 30mm from the Piperacillin\ Tazobactum disk. Enhancement of zone of inhibition of disc of Piperacillin alone towards the disc containing Piperacillin\ Tazobactum, showing a figure of eight impression were considered as ESBL producer. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 were used as control strains. The prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Proteus in raw milk and milks products of Paonta valley was 11%.

Singh V.,Hnb Garhwal University | Chauhan P.K.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Seema,Himachal Institute of Life science | Tyagi A.,Himachal Institute of Life science | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

In the present study total eight heavy metal resistant E. coli were isolated from sewage of industrial effluents from waste water treatment plant of Paonta Sahib H.P. India, against chromium, copper, nickel, cadmium. All the isolates exhibited high resistance to heavy metals with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for heavy metals ranging from 50 μg/ml to 450 μg/ml. All isolates showed multiple tolerances to heavy metal and were multi antibiotic resistant. Heavy Metal Tolerance Test indicated maximum microbial tolerance of E. coli (Ec-7) to Chromium (400 μg/ml) and lowest to Copper (60 μg/ml).

Chauhan P.K.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of the acetone extract of Centella asiatica (Brahmi). Methods: Toxicity of Centella asiatica was evaluated in Swiss mice after ingestion of the extract during one day (acute model) and during 15 days (subacute model). The Biochemical parameters evaluated included creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assessed using commercial kits. Results: The results of the present investigation revealed that the LD50 of the extract is higher than 4000mg/kg and subacute treatment did not shows any change in corporal weight and hematological parameters. However, a change in liver weight but not in hepatic enzymes was observed. This suggested that the liver function is not altered by Centella asiatica. Some changes in the creatinine content were observed but could not be relative with the extract dose. Conclusions: The results suggest that the plant seems to be destitute of toxic effects in mice. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Thakur K.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Chauhan P.K.,Himachal Institute of Life science
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung, especially of the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lungs) associated with fever, chest symptoms, and consolidation on a chest radiograph. While typically caused by an infection there are a number of non-infectious causes. Infectious agents include: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Typical symptoms include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. With increasing use of antibiotics these bacteria have evolved itself into the way that it is becoming more and more antibiotic resistant and case of ESBL producing bacteria has been reported in genus Klebsiella. The aim of this work is based on assessing the prevalence of the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia in the patients of pneumonia, and to check the activity of medicinal plants and their effect in synergism with allopathic drugs against the organism. Fruit parts and aerial parts of five medicinal plants of Dasmodium Gangeticum, Nelumbo Nucifera, Canabis, Sesame White and Sesame Black have been used in the form of three different extract i.e. Methanolic, Ethanolic and Aqueous and their activity was assessed.

Chauhan S.,Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences | Farooq U.,Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences | Singh V.,Himachal Institute of Life science | Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Education
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security. The virtues of milk as a food have long been recognized by human beings. Milk is however a good medium for bacterial growth and an efficient vehicle for bacterial infection when consumed without boiling or pasteurization. The aim of the present study was to evaluvate the presence of ESBL producing Klebsiella species present in raw milk of Doon valley in India. The study was carried out from July 2007 to July 2008. A total of 100 samples of raw milk were collected from Doon valley. These samples were cultured and the isolated organisms were identified by standard bacteriological methods. A total of 27 samples were found to be positive for Klebsiella species. Further ESBL phenotypic screening was performed. All 27 isolates found ESBL producing. Isolated Klebsiella spp showed 96.29% susceptibility to imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin (62.96%), piperacillin/tazobactam combination (51.85%) and ciftazidime (18.51%). This study reveals that Klebsiella isolated from raw milk in Doon valley produce ESBL in large proportion. The imipenem antibiotic which was found highly sensitive to ESBL producing klebsiella isolates might be a drug of choice.

Devi A.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Singh V.,Himachal institute of life science | Bhatt A.B.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Streptococcus is the leading cause of dental diseases worldwide and is considered to be the most cariogenic of all of the oral bacteria. The total 150 dental plaque sample were collected from Uttranchal dental college and hospital dehradun and different dental clinics of dehradun. Out of 320 isolates recovered prevalence of Streptococcus sp. was 50%. 10 antibiotics were used against the recovered isolates. 80% of the recovered isolates revealed the sensitive activity against amoxicillin (25 mcg), ampicillin (25 mcg), chloramphenicol (30 mcg), erythromycin (30 mcg), clindamycin (30 mcg), tetracycline (30 mcg), penicillin (100 mcg) and resistant activity against metronidazole (30 mcg), ciprofloxacin (25 mcg), and gentamycin (25 mcg). The antibacterial activity of Punica granatum against the recovered isolates was studied by using agar well diffusion method. Out of four different solvents used in the present study 90 % of the recovered isolates showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the methanolic extract of Punica granatum i.e. 25 mm.

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