Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated

Valley Center, KS, United States

Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated

Valley Center, KS, United States

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Kruger J.M.,Michigan State University | Lulich J.P.,University of Minnesota | Macleay J.,Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc | Merrills J.,Michigan State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2015

Objective—To evaluate the effect of nutrition on recurrent clinical signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in cats with idiopathic cystitis. Design—Randomized, controlled, masked clinical trial. Animals—31 cats with acute nonobstructive idiopathic cystitis. Procedures—Cats were assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods (a cystitis prevention or control food) that differed in mineral (calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium), antioxidant, and fatty acid profiles. Owners documented LUT signs daily for up to 1 year. The primary endpoint was the number of recurrent episodes in which a cat had multiple (≥ 0.2 concurrent) LUT signs within a day (defined as multiple-sign day). Consecutive days in which a cat had multiple LUT signs were considered as a single episode. Results—4 cats fed prevention food and 2 cats fed control food were excluded from analysis because of noncompliance, gastrointestinal signs, food refusal, or owner voluntary withdrawal. The proportion of cats fed prevention food that had ≥ 1 recurrent episode of multiple-sign days (4/11) was not significantly lower than that of cats fed control food (9/14). However, cats fed prevention food had significantly lower mean incidence rates for recurrent episodes of multiple-sign days (0.7 episodes/1,000 cat-days) and episodes of hematuria (0.3 episodes/1,000 cat-days), dysuria (0.2 episodes/1,000 cat-days), and stranguria (0.2 episodes/1,000 cat-days) as single LUT signs, compared with cats fed control food (5.4, 3.4, 3.1, and 3.8 episodes/1,000 cat-days, respectively). Significantly fewer cats fed prevention food required analgesics (4/11), compared with cats fed control food (12/14). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Foods with differing nutritional profiles appeared to impact mean incidence rates of recurrent feline idiopathic cystitis-associated signs. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Abecia L.,University of Reading | Abecia L.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidín | Hoyles L.,University of Reading | Khoo C.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics | Year: 2010

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common gastrointestinal disorder of cats with no known aetiological agent. Previous work has suggested that the faecal microbiota of IBD cats is significantly different from that of healthy cats, including significantly lower bifidobacteria, bacteroides and total counts in IBD cats and significantly lower levels of sulfate-reducing bacteria in healthy cats. Prebiotics, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), have been shown to elicit a bifidogenic effect in humans and other animals. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of a novel GOS supplementation on the faecal microbiota of healthy and IBD cats during a randomized double-blind cross-overfeeding study. Eight oligonucleotide probes targeting specific bacterial populations and DAPI stain (total bacteria) were used to monitor the feline faecal microbiota. Overall, inter-animal variation was high; while a trend of increased bifidobacterial levels was seen with GOS supplementation it was not statistically significant in either healthy or IBD cats. No significant differences were observed in the faecal microbiota of IBD cats and healthy cats fed the same diet. Members of the family Coriobacteriaceae (Atopobium cluster) were found to be the most abundant bacteria in the feline microbiota. Copyright © 2010 by New Century Health Publishers, LLC.


Hall J.A.,Oregon State University | Yerramilli M.,IDEXX Laboratories | Obare E.,IDEXX Laboratories | Panickar K.S.,Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine the effects of feeding traditional and renal protective foods (RPF) supplemented with functional food bioactives on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), lean body percent (LB%), and selected circulating biomarker and metabolite concentrations in a geriatric dog model. Design: Randomized block design and cross-sectional study. Setting: Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. dog colony. Participants: Eighty-one geriatric dogs (mean age, 10.4; range, 7.9-14.2 years) and 30 mature-adult dogs (mean age, 5.0; range, 3.3-6.9 years). Intervention: Geriatric dogs were fed one of three foods (n = 27 per group) for 6 months: a traditional RPF (control) that was energy dense and mildly protein-restricted, or control food supplemented with increasing amounts of functional food bioactives: fish oil, lipoic acid, fruits and vegetables, and higher quality protein sources [functional foods one (FF1) and two (FF2)]. Geriatric dogs were compared before and after the feeding trial with mature adult dogs. Measurements: Renal function was assessed by GFR, LB% was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and circulating biomarkers and metabolites were measured in blood. Results: Before the feeding trial, GFR (+28.2%), LB% (+18.6%), and serum total protein (+10.0%) were higher in mature versus healthy geriatric dogs (all P<0.001). Geriatric dogs consuming all three foods increased (P<0.001) GFR over time; group averages ranged from 13.0–16.9%. Dogs fed the highest supplemented level of bioactives (FF2) had lower (P<0.001) symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations (-14.3%). Feeding functional foods did not alter body weight, but increased (P<0.001) serum protein concentration (+6.7%). Conclusion: Supplementation with functional food bioactives can temporarily reverse the age-associated decline in renal function and serum total protein. © 2015 Serdi and Springer-Verlag France


Towell T.L.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | Hampe S.,Texas A&M University | Wayner C.J.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2010

Objective:-To compare opinions of referring veterinarians and perceptions of veterinary teaching hospital (VTH) veterinarians of those opinions regarding nutritional product recommendations made by VTH veterinarians. Design:-Survey. Sample Population:-VTH veterinarians from 10 US colleges of veterinary medicine and referring veterinarians within a 160-km (100-mile) radius of each of those colleges. Procedures:-Questions intended to assess the attitudes of VTH clinicians and referring veterinarians toward recommendations on nutritional products were designed by use of item statements with a 7-point Likert scale. Data were evaluated by use of crosstab analysis and Likert bipolar scaling to measure overall positive or negative responses to statements and to determine significant differences in responses to demographic and communication questions. Results:-Referring veterinarians returned 1,430 of 12,720 surveys, and VTH veterinarians returned 98 of 690 surveys (response rate, 11.2% and 14.2%, respectively). Significant communication gaps between general practitioners and board-certified veterinarians existed. The VTH veterinarians consistently reported providing written case summaries sooner than referring veterinarians reported receiving them. Referring veterinarians indicated that they expected and welcomed specific nutritional recommendations more than was perceived by VTH veterinarians. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance:-VTH veterinarians should not assume the attitudes of referring veterinarians, particularly with regard to specific nutritional recommendations. Failure to discuss specific nutritional recommendations may prevent effective consultation between veterinarians and also may directly affect clients who may experience delays in treatment for their pets. Procedural issues related to delivery and receipt of written case summaries should be investigated by VTH veterinarians and general practitioners.


Floerchinger A.M.,Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc | Jackson M.I.,Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc | Jewell D.E.,Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc | MacLeay J.M.,Hill's Pet Nutrition Inc | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2015

Objective-To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplementalL-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine,and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs.Design-Prospective clinical studyAnimals-50 overweight dogs.Procedures-The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight(group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3)basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake wasadjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, eachdog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achievedat the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed andunderwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determinedbefore (baseline) and after each phase.Results-During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did thosein group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass butretained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose bodyfat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic datasuggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogsfed the test food.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that feeding overweight dogsthe test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weightmaintenancephase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism. © 2015 American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Zicker S.C.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | Avila A.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | Joshi D.K.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | Gross K.L.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated
American Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2010

Objective - To determine the pharmacokinetics of DL-α-lipoic acid in dogs when administered at 3 dosages via 3 methods of delivery. Animals - 27 clinically normal Beagles. Procedures - In a 3 X 3 factorial Latin square design, 3 dosages (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/ kg) of DL-α-lipoic acid were administered orally in a capsule form and provided without a meal, in a capsule form and provided with a meal, and as an ingredient included in an extruded dog food. Food was withheld for 12 hours prior to DL-α-lipoic acid administration. Blood samples were collected before (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes after administration. Plasma concentrations of DL-α-lipoic acid were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. A generalized linear models procedure was used to evaluate the effects of method of delivery and dosage. Noncompartmental analysis was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of dl-?-lipoic acid. Nonparametric tests were used to detect significant differences between pharmacokinetic parameters among treatment groups. Results - A significant effect of dosage was observed regardless of delivery method. Method of delivery also significantly affected plasma concentrations of DL-α-lipoic acid, with extruded foods resulting in lowest concentration for each dosage administered. Maximum plasma concentration was significantly affected by method of delivery at each dosage administered. Other significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were variable and dependent on dosage and method of delivery. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Values for pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered dl-?-lipoic acid may differ significantly when there are changes in dosage, method of administration, and fed status.


Schoenherr W.D.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | MacLeay J.M.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated | Yamka R.M.,Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated
American Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2010

Objective - To evaluate cartilage and bone biomarkers and body composition in growing large-breed dogs consuming a diet designed for growth. Animals - 43 large-breed 2 month-old-puppies. Procedures - Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods until 18 months of age. Dogs were evaluated at 2, 5, 12, and 18 months of age via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), CBC, serum biochemical profile, and concentrations or activities of taurine, vitamin E, fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked fragment of type II collagen (CTXII), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, ghrelin, and growth hormone. Results - Blood components largely reflected the composition of the foods. Dogs fed the food with a higher concentration of protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants had a lower percentage of body fat and greater percentage of lean body mass at 5, 12, and 18 months of age, and higher CPII:CTXII ratio and lower COMP at 18 months of age. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration declined with age, whereas COMP concentration and CPII concentration were similar at all time points for both foods. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration were greater during growth than at 18 months of age. The food that was proportionately higher in protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants increased lean body mass and may have positively affected cartilage turnover as maturity was attained. Whether the rate of cartilage turnover during growth affects development of orthopedic disease or arthritis in adulthood has yet to be determined.


PubMed | Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of veterinary research | Year: 2010

To evaluate cartilage and bone biomarkers and body composition in growing large-breed dogs consuming a diet designed for growth.43 large-breed 2 month-old-puppies.Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods until 18 months of age. Dogs were evaluated at 2, 5, 12, and 18 months of age via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), CBC, serum biochemical profile, and concentrations or activities of taurine, vitamin E, fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked fragment of type II collagen (CTXII), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, ghrelin, and growth hormone.Blood components largely reflected the composition of the foods. Dogs fed the food with a higher concentration of protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants had a lower percentage of body fat and greater percentage of lean body mass at 5, 12, and 18 months of age, and higher CPII:CTXII ratio and lower COMP at 18 months of age. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration declined with age, whereas COMP concentration and CPII concentration were similar at all time points for both foods.The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration were greater during growth than at 18 months of age. The food that was proportionately higher in protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants increased lean body mass and may have positively affected cartilage turnover as maturity was attained. Whether the rate of cartilage turnover during growth affects development of orthopedic disease or arthritis in adulthood has yet to be determined.


PubMed | Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of veterinary research | Year: 2010

To evaluate the use of serum biomarkers of cartilage and bone metabolism to predict the occurrence and severity of osteochondrosis (OC) lesions in the distal portion of the femur in growing swine.71 gilts.At an abattoir, serum samples for analysis of 10 biomarkers indicative of cartilage and bone metabolism were obtained prior to processing of the pigs. The distal portion of each pigs left femur was directly examined and cut into longitudinal sections to evaluate the number and severity of abnormalities on the external surface, articular cartilage, and growth plate. Each specimen was categorized as with (n = 56) or without (15) OC, and an overall OC severity score was assigned to affected pigs. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to predict odds of OC on the basis of biomarker concentrations and predict the severity of OC values in affected pigs, respectively.Compared with values in unaffected pigs, serum concentrations of C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein were significantly increased and concentrations of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen 3/4-length fragment (C2C) and pyridinoline cross-links were significantly decreased in affected pigs. A 2-fold increase in CPII concentration increased the odds of pigs having OC by a factor of 97 (95% confidence interval, 6 to infinity). Changes in serum C2C concentration accounted for 49% of the variation in overall OC severity score.Assessment of serum biomarker concentrations may be useful in the diagnosis of OC and aid in reduction of lameness in swine herds.


PubMed | Hills Pet Nutrition Incorporated
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of veterinary research | Year: 2010

To determine the pharmacokinetics of DL--lipoic acid in dogs when administered at 3 dosages via 3 methods of delivery.27 clinically normal Beagles.In a 3 3 factorial Latin square design, 3 dosages (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) of DL--lipoic acid were administered orally in a capsule form and provided without a meal, in a capsule form and provided with a meal, and as an ingredient included in an extruded dog food. Food was withheld for 12 hours prior to DL--lipoic acid administration. Blood samples were collected before (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes after administration. Plasma concentrations of DL--lipoic acid were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. A generalized linear models procedure was used to evaluate the effects of method of delivery and dosage. Noncompartmental analysis was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of DL--lipoic acid. Nonparametric tests were used to detect significant differences between pharmacokinetic parameters among treatment groups.A significant effect of dosage was observed regardless of delivery method. Method of delivery also significantly affected plasma concentrations of DL--lipoic acid, with extruded foods resulting in lowest concentration for each dosage administered. Maximum plasma concentration was significantly affected by method of delivery at each dosage administered. Other significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were variable and dependent on dosage and method of delivery.Values for pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered DL--lipoic acid may differ significantly when there are changes in dosage, method of administration, and fed status.

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