Jepsen R.K.,Rigshospitalet |
Ingeholm P.,Hillerod Hospital |
Histopathology | Year: 2012
Aims: To evaluate whether the use of intra-arterial methylene blue injection improves lymph node yield, and to determine whether a higher lymph node count results in upstaging in colorectal cancer. Method and results: We performed a retrospective study of colorectal cancer specimens (n=234) 1year after implementation of the method. All colorectal cancer specimens from the previous year served as our control group. Data concerning tumour characteristics, lymph node count, number of positive lymph nodes and success of methylene injection had been prospectively collected in accordance with the department's ongoing registration. The method was easy to implement and perform with a high rate of success (86%). The number of identified lymph nodes was highly significantly improved in the study group (P<0.0001). In resections with pT1/T2 tumours, we demonstrated a significant increase in the number of resection specimens containing positive lymph nodes, with an increase in pN1 resections from 9.4% in the control group to 26.7% in the study group (P=0.04). Conclusions: The methylene blue technique significantly improves lymph node identification in colorectal cancer specimens, and the improved lymph node identification leads to upstaging of International Union Against Cancer (UICC) pT1/pT2 cancers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited..
von Plessen C.,Hillerod Hospital
The clinical respiratory journal | Year: 2011
Lung cancer is the third most common mortal disease in industrialised countries and the prognosis has been slow to improve. The largest subgroup has locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, these patients can usually not be cured and the main treatment option is palliative chemotherapy. Given the palliative intention of the chemotherapy, it is clinically highly relevant to establish the optimal treatment duration. While chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life (QoL), it also has side effects and only a minority of patients achieve an objective treatment response. Clinicians need guidance on treatment duration from controlled trials to balance these aspects. Improvements of the conditions under which chemotherapy is given can increase patient and staff satisfaction and increase system performance. This is especially relevant to incurable patients who spend a lot of their limited time at oncology outpatient clinics. Staffing, infrastructure and organisation of these units are often suboptimal to serve patients with palliative needs and reports of improvement projects can inspire and guide clinicians in improving their microsystems of care. Clinicians, health care administrators and the public need knowledge about the outcomes of palliative chemotherapy in unselected patient populations. The efficacy of palliative chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC has been amply documented in controlled clinical trials. Meanwhile, the elderly and patients with higher performance status have usually been under-represented in these trials and population studies of the effectiveness of chemotherapy are needed. (i) To establish the optimal duration of platinum-based first line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC; (ii) To improve the care processes at an oncology outpatient clinical microsystem; (iii) To describe the use of chemotherapy in a national population and investigate associations between chemotherapy use and survival; and (iv) To explore approaches to improve the system of chemotherapy from the macro perspective of a whole country. The thesis combines methods from different knowledge domains. In a randomised trial, we compared three with six courses of platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. In a quality improvement study, we used logistic improvement tools, qualitative and quantitative patient and staff satisfaction measurements. Finally using data from the Norwegian cancer and chemotherapy registries, we investigated temporary and geographical variations of chemotherapy use and correlations with the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods and findings from the three studies were explored to inform a national improvement strategy for the chemotherapy of advanced NSCLC. Survival and QoL were equal with three or six courses of chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. Systematic process changes at the outpatient clinic led to increased patient and staff satisfaction. Furthermore, the study illustrates the application of established process improvement and evaluation tools in a clinical microsystem. In the registry study, we found delays of the introduction of palliative chemotherapy in Norway and significant associations between the use of chemotherapy and the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. The general section of the thesis describes approaches to system-wide improvements and introduces a quality improvement matrix. We conclude from our randomised trial and related research that chemotherapy beyond three courses is not beneficial for patients with advanced NSCLC. The report from the oncology outpatient clinic illustrates the value of the clinical microsystem approach for quality improvement at the front line of care. Patient feedback through a focus group, simple methods of assessing and simplifying processes of care, as well as measuring results over time were effective tools in our project. The description of the experiences can serve as an example for the improvement of microsystems in settings with similar problems. Finally, in the registry study of Norwegian patients with lung cancer, we found significant geographical and temporal variations of the utilisation of chemotherapy that were related to survival. Potential areas of improvement in the system of care for lung cancer are recruitment of patients in clinical studies, standardisation of the processes of care in outpatient clinics, definition of strategic aims of quality, development of balanced quality indicators, as well as measuring and reporting of outcomes by means of a quality registry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kruse O.,Copenhagen University |
Grunnet N.,Copenhagen University |
Barfod C.,Hillerod Hospital
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine | Year: 2011
Background: Using blood lactate monitoring for risk assessment in the critically ill patient remains controversial. Some of the discrepancy is due to uncertainty regarding the appropriate reference interval, and whether to perform a single lactate measurement as a screening method at admission to the hospital, or serial lactate measurements. Furthermore there is no consensus whether the sample should be drawn from arterial, peripheral venous, or capillary blood. The aim of this review was:. 1) To examine whether blood lactate levels are predictive for in-hospital mortality in patients in the acute setting, i.e. patients assessed pre-hospitally, in the trauma centre, emergency department, or intensive care unit.2) To examine the agreement between arterial, peripheral venous, and capillary blood lactate levels in patients in the acute setting.Methods: We performed a systematic search using PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL up to April 2011. 66 articles were considered potentially relevant and evaluated in full text, of these ultimately 33 articles were selected.Results and Conclusion: The literature reviewed supported blood lactate monitoring as being useful for risk assessment in patients admitted acutely to hospital, and especially the trend, achieved by serial lactate sampling, is valuable in predicting in-hospital mortality. All patients with a lactate at admission above 2.5 mM should be closely monitored for signs of deterioration, but patients with even lower lactate levels should be considered for serial lactate monitoring. The correlation between lactate levels in arterial and venous blood was found to be acceptable, and venous sampling should therefore be encouraged, as the risk and inconvenience for this procedure is minimal for the patient. The relevance of lactate guided therapy has to be supported by more studies. © 2011 Kruse et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Abrahamsen B.,University of Southern Denmark |
Abrahamsen B.,Copenhagen University |
Eiken P.,Hillerod Hospital |
Eastell R.,University of Sheffield
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010
Context: Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of anti-osteoporotic treatment and are commonly used for a longer duration than in the placebo-controlled trials. A link to development of atypical subtrochanteric or diaphyseal fragility fractures of the femur has been proposed, and these fractures are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients: Patients were alendronate users, without previous hip fracture, who began treatment between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2005 (n = 39,567) and untreated controls, (n = 158,268). Main outcome measures: Subtrochanteric or diaphyseal femur fractures were evaluated. Results: Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fractures occurred at a rate of 13 per 10,000 patient-years in untreated women and 31 per 10,000 patient-years in women receiving alendronate [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-2.17]. Rates for men were six and 31 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively (HR = 3.98; 95% CI = 2.62-6.05). The HR for hip fracture was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.30-1.46)) in women and 2.47 (95% CI = 2.07-2.95) in men. Risks of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fracture were similar in patients who had received 9 yr of treatment (highest quartile) and patients who had stopped therapy after the equivalent of 3 months of treatment (lowest quartile). Conclusions: Alendronate-treated patients are at higher risk of hip and subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fracture than matched control subjects. However, large cumulative doses of alendronate were not associated with a greater absolute risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fractures than small cumulative doses, suggesting that these fractures could be due to osteoporosis rather than to alendronate. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.
Kannegaard P.N.,Kloverprisvej 109 |
van der Mark S.,Gentofte University Hospital |
Eiken P.,Hillerod Hospital |
Abrahamsen B.,Gentofte University Hospital
Age and Ageing | Year: 2010
Introduction: osteoporosis is a common disease, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures is expected to rise with the growing elderly population. Immediately following, and probably several years after a hip fracture, patients, both men and women, have a higher risk of dying compared to the general population regardless of age. The aim of this study was to assess excess mortality following hip fracture and, if possible, identify reasons for the difference between mortality for the two genders. Methods: this is a nationwide register-based cohort study presenting data from the National Hospital Discharge Register on mortality, comorbidity and medication for all Danish patients (more than 41,000 persons) experiencing a hip fracture between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2002. Follow-up period was until 31 December 2005. Results: we found a substantially higher mortality among male hip fracture patients than female hip fracture patients despite men being 4 years younger at the time of fracture. Both male and female hip fracture patients were found to have an excess mortality rate compared to the general population. The cumulative mortality at 12 months among hip fracture patients compared to the general population was 37.1% (9.9%) in men and 26.4% (9.3%) in women. In the first year, the risk of death significantly increased for women with increasing age (hazard ratio, HR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.06-1.07), the number of comedications (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05) and the presence of specific Charlson index components and medications described below. For men, age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.07-1.08), number of comedications (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.07) and presence of different specific Charlson index components and medications increased the risk. Long-term survival analyses revealed that excess mortality for men compared with women remained strongly significant (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.65-1.75, P < 0.001), even when controlled for age, fracture site, the number of medications, exposure to drug classes A, C, D, G, J, M, N, P, S and for chronic comorbidities. Conclusion: excess mortality among male patients cannot be explained by controlling for known comorbidity and medications. Besides gender, we found higher age and multimorbidity to be related to an increased risk of dying within the first year after fracture; acute complications might be one of the explanations. This study emphasises the need for particular rigorous postoperative diagnostic evaluation and treatment of comorbid conditions in the male hip fracture patient. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.